INT169203

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Context Info
Confidence 0.55
First Reported 2008
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 2
Total Number 14
Disease Relevance 14.27
Pain Relevance 3.47

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Gdf15) extracellular region (Gdf15)
Anatomy Link Frequency
heart 4
chest 1
Gdf15 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
cva 91 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 26 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 39 98.14 Very High Very High Very High
Angina 327 97.72 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 26 73.28 Quite High
depression 26 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pulmonary Embolism 13 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Myocardial Infarction 377 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
Renal Disease 39 99.02 Very High Very High Very High
Cv Unclassified Under Development 26 98.84 Very High Very High Very High
Reperfusion Injury 13 98.44 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 39 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 39 98.14 Very High Very High Very High
Hypertension 26 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
Angina 327 97.72 Very High Very High Very High
Cardiovascular Disease 65 97.52 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
As previously shown, circulating levels of GDF-15 are elevated and provide independent prognostic information in patients with unstable angina and non-ST-elevation MI,8 ST-elevation MI,24 chronic ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart failure,22 and acute pulmonary embolism,25 indicating that elevated GDF-15 levels identify high-risk individuals across a broad spectrum of cardiovascular disease.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of GDF-15 in heart associated with pulmonary embolism, cardiovascular disease, cva and myocardial infarction
1) Confidence 0.55 Published 2008 Journal European Heart Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2556729 Disease Relevance 1.15 Pain Relevance 0.45
In accordance with previous experiences,8,9,22 age, male gender, diabetes, smoking, ventricular wall stress and ischaemia (NT-proBNP), inflammation (C-reactive protein), and renal dysfunction (cystatin C) were independently associated with elevated GDF-15 levels.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of GDF-15 associated with stress, nicotine addiction, inflammation, diabetes mellitus, renal disease and cv unclassified under development
2) Confidence 0.55 Published 2008 Journal European Heart Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2556729 Disease Relevance 1.11 Pain Relevance 0.14
Patients presenting with elevated GDF-15 levels were characterized by high-risk features such as increased age and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and previous cardiovascular disease.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of GDF-15 associated with cardiovascular disease
3) Confidence 0.55 Published 2008 Journal European Heart Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2556729 Disease Relevance 1.07 Pain Relevance 0.15
In animal models, GDF-15 is induced in the heart in response to ischaemia–reperfusion injury, pressure overload, and heart failure, possibly via pro-inflammatory cytokine and oxidative stress-dependent signalling pathways.6,7 We have recently reported that the circulating levels of GDF-15 are increased and independently associated with mortality, risk of recurrent MI, and the effects of early invasive procedures in patients diagnosed with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.8,9
Positive_regulation (induced) of GDF-15 in heart associated with stress, acute coronary syndrome, reperfusion injury, inflammation, cv unclassified under development, myocardial infarction and cytokine
4) Confidence 0.55 Published 2008 Journal European Heart Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2556729 Disease Relevance 1.10 Pain Relevance 0.29
In animal models, GDF-15 is induced in the heart in response to ischaemia–reperfusion injury, pressure overload, and heart failure, possibly via pro-inflammatory cytokine and oxidative stress-dependent signalling pathways.6,7 We have recently reported that the circulating levels of GDF-15 are increased and independently associated with mortality, risk of recurrent MI, and the effects of early invasive procedures in patients diagnosed with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.8,9
Positive_regulation (increased) of GDF-15 in heart associated with stress, acute coronary syndrome, reperfusion injury, inflammation, cv unclassified under development, myocardial infarction and cytokine
5) Confidence 0.55 Published 2008 Journal European Heart Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2556729 Disease Relevance 1.04 Pain Relevance 0.34
GDF-15 levels were moderately elevated (between 1200 and 1800 ng/L) in 156 patients (33%) and highly elevated (>1800 ng/L) in 174 patients (36%).
Positive_regulation (elevated) of GDF-15
6) Confidence 0.37 Published 2008 Journal European Heart Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2556729 Disease Relevance 1.08 Pain Relevance 0.15
As previously shown, circulating levels of GDF-15 are elevated and provide independent prognostic information in patients with unstable angina and non-ST-elevation MI,8 ST-elevation MI,24 chronic ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart failure,22 and acute pulmonary embolism,25 indicating that elevated GDF-15 levels identify high-risk individuals across a broad spectrum of cardiovascular disease.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of GDF-15 in heart associated with pulmonary embolism, cardiovascular disease, cva and myocardial infarction
7) Confidence 0.37 Published 2008 Journal European Heart Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2556729 Disease Relevance 1.09 Pain Relevance 0.33
Thus, an elevated level of GDF-15 seems to reflect several underlying conditions, acute and/or chronic, associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of GDF-15
8) Confidence 0.37 Published 2008 Journal European Heart Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2556729 Disease Relevance 1.14 Pain Relevance 0.14
Patients with elevated levels of GDF-15 were also more likely to develop a peak cTnI0–2 h level ?
Positive_regulation (elevated) of GDF-15
9) Confidence 0.37 Published 2008 Journal European Heart Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2556729 Disease Relevance 1.06 Pain Relevance 0.12
Among patients with a final diagnosis of acute MI, 83% presented with elevated levels of GDF-15 (?
Positive_regulation (elevated) of GDF-15 associated with myocardial infarction
10) Confidence 0.37 Published 2008 Journal European Heart Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2556729 Disease Relevance 1.40 Pain Relevance 0.35
Patients with elevated levels of GDF-15 tended to be older and were more likely to have hypertension or diabetes, to have a history of tobacco use or cardiovascular disease, or to present with an abnormal ECG (Table 2).
Positive_regulation (elevated) of GDF-15 associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension
11) Confidence 0.37 Published 2008 Journal European Heart Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2556729 Disease Relevance 1.05 Pain Relevance 0.13
A GDF-15 level <1200 ng/L identified low-risk subjects among the patient cohorts with an abnormal ECG or elevated cTnI.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of GDF-15
12) Confidence 0.34 Published 2008 Journal European Heart Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2556729 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0.33
As these data were derived from highly selected, high-risk populations enrolled in clinical trials, the usefulness of GDF-15 for risk stratification needed to be evaluated in a heterogeneous, non-selected, real-life patient cohort with chest pain.
Positive_regulation (usefulness) of GDF-15 in chest associated with angina
13) Confidence 0.34 Published 2008 Journal European Heart Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2556729 Disease Relevance 1.17 Pain Relevance 0.55
However, its predictive value could be further enhanced by the addition of selected nonnecrosis biomarkers, in particular GDF-15 or cystatin C.


Positive_regulation (enhanced) of GDF-15
14) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal Am. Heart J. Section Body Doc Link 20598977 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0

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