| Among them, compound 4a, (S)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-(1,2,3,5,6,8a-hexahydroindolizin-7-yl)-3-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-pyrrole (R-132811), achieved the most promising results in various in vitro and in vivo tests including several rheumatoid arthritis models ((i) inhibition of p38alpha, p38beta, p38gamma, and p38delta MAP kinases: IC(50)=0.034, 0.572, >10, and >10 microM, respectively; (ii) inhibition of TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 production in human whole blood: IC(50)=0.026, 0.020, 0.88, and 0.016 microM, respectively; (iii) inhibition of LPS induced TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 production in mice: ID(50)=0.93, 8.63, and 0.11 mg/kg, p.o., respectively; (iv) inhibition of anti-collagen antibody-induced arthritis in mice: ID(50)=2.22 mg/kg, p.o.; (v) inhibition of collagen-induced arthritis in mice: ID(50)=2.38 mg/kg, p.o.; (vi) prophylactic effect on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats: ID(50)=3.1 mg/kg, p.o.; (vii) therapeutic effect on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats: ID(50)=4.9 mg/kg, p.o.; (viii) analgesic effect on adjuvant-induced arthritic pain in rats: ID(50)=2.9 mg/kg, p.o.).