INT169776

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Context Info
Confidence 0.77
First Reported 2006
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 52
Total Number 52
Disease Relevance 8.75
Pain Relevance 1.38

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (Opn4) signal transducer activity (Opn4)
Anatomy Link Frequency
retinal ganglion cells 9
cones 6
retina 2
ganglion cell layer 2
visual system 2
Opn4 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Neurotransmitter 105 96.68 Very High Very High Very High
Autonomic response 4 94.88 High High
projection neuron 28 92.04 High High
Glutamate 60 91.96 High High
Pain 8 84.68 Quite High
Thalamus 75 80.24 Quite High
Migraine 21 79.20 Quite High
Eae 63 76.72 Quite High
imagery 84 76.60 Quite High
headache 9 75.68 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Ganglion Cysts 582 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 463 99.86 Very High Very High Very High
Retina Disease 148 98.40 Very High Very High Very High
Death 112 98.28 Very High Very High Very High
Sunburn 60 93.92 High High
Miosis 22 86.80 High High
Pain 8 84.68 Quite High
Migraine Disorders 21 79.20 Quite High
Photophobia 44 78.08 Quite High
Diphtheria 13 77.12 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In this strategy, appearance of the reporter protein (human alkaline phosphatase (AP) or green fluorescent protein) is dependent on the expression of Cre from the native melanopsin promoter.
Gene_expression (expression) of melanopsin
1) Confidence 0.77 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2998442 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.08
This comprises a small number of directly photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (Berson et al., 2002) expressing melanopsin (mRGCs), a retinaldehyde-based photopigment (Lucas et al., 2003; Melyan et al., 2005; Panda et al., 2005; Qiu et al., 2005).
Gene_expression (expressing) of melanopsin in retinal ganglion cells associated with ganglion cysts
2) Confidence 0.76 Published 2010 Journal Neuron Section Body Doc Link PMC2875410 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0
Melanopsin expression was confirmed by immunocytochemistry.
Gene_expression (expression) of Melanopsin
3) Confidence 0.76 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2519834 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0
Melanopsin-expressing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) form a light-sensitive system separate from rods and cones.
Gene_expression (expressing) of Melanopsin in cones associated with ganglion cysts
4) Confidence 0.75 Published 2010 Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. Section Abstract Doc Link 20855606 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.15
The remaining GFP-positive soma were restricted to the ganglion cell layer and proximal zone of the inner nuclear layer and presumably either reflect cells with very low melanopsin expression or cells that transiently expressed melanopsin during development.
Gene_expression (expression) of melanopsin in proximal associated with ganglion cysts
5) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2998442 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0
Photoreception in the mammalian retina is not restricted to rods and cones but extends to a subset of retinal ganglion cells expressing the photopigment melanopsin (mRGCs).
Gene_expression (expressing) of melanopsin in cones associated with ganglion cysts
6) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2998442 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.03
The remaining GFP-positive soma were restricted to the ganglion cell layer and proximal zone of the inner nuclear layer and presumably either reflect cells with very low melanopsin expression or cells that transiently expressed melanopsin during development.
Gene_expression (expressed) of melanopsin in proximal associated with ganglion cysts
7) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2998442 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0
However, this ability also extends to a small number of neurons expressing the protein melanopsin.
Gene_expression (expressing) of melanopsin in neurons
8) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2998442 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0
Melanopsin Contributions to Irradiance Coding in the Thalamo-Cortical Visual System

Neurophysiological and anatomical studies identify melanopsin expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) as a major source of information in the mouse visual system.


Gene_expression (expressing) of melanopsin in visual system associated with ganglion cysts
9) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Title Doc Link PMC2998442 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.04
In this regard, our data support the view that melanopsin photoreceptors compensate for a fundamental limitation in the ability of cones to encode irradiance over the photopic range.
Gene_expression (photoreceptors) of melanopsin in cones
10) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2998442 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
In the context of behavioural aversion to light, our identification of melanopsin-driven c-Fos induction (Figure S1) in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is of particular interest because stimulation of this region in humans can cause autonomic responses linked to emotional processing [66].
Gene_expression (induction) of melanopsin in autonomic associated with autonomic response
11) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2993953 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.37
Here, using the same light source as that used for behavioural testing, we found a clear, melanopsin-driven c-Fos induction in medial visual/retrosplenial cortex (Figure S1).


Gene_expression (induction) of melanopsin in cortex
12) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2993953 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
However, rd/rd cl mice show circadian phase shifts to 15 min stimuli at least 10-fold dimmer than this (Hattar et al., 2003), suggesting that melanopsin phototransduction may be active at surprisingly dim irradiances.
Gene_expression (phototransduction) of melanopsin
13) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal Neuron Section Body Doc Link PMC2875410 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Targeted Destruction of Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells with a Saporin Conjugate Alters the Effects of Light on Mouse Circadian Rhythms

Non-image related responses to light, such as the synchronization of circadian rhythms to the day/night cycle, are mediated by classical rod/cone photoreceptors and by a small subset of retinal ganglion cells that are intrinsically photosensitive, expressing the photopigment, melanopsin.

Gene_expression (expressing) of melanopsin in photoreceptors associated with ganglion cysts
14) Confidence 0.66 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Title Doc Link PMC2519834 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0
-galactosidase and melanopsin ganglion cells expressing Fos was determined.



Gene_expression (ganglion cells) of melanopsin in ganglion cells associated with ganglion cysts
15) Confidence 0.64 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2655650 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0
3) virtually no melanopsin ipRGCs were Fos immunopositive (0.8%; 5 Fos + mel/615 mel; Table 1).
Gene_expression (ipRGCs) of melanopsin
16) Confidence 0.64 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2655650 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
These ectopic bipolar synapses were noted to be in close apposition to dendrites of melanopsin ipRGCs near the IPL-INL border [40].
Gene_expression (ipRGCs) of melanopsin in synapses
17) Confidence 0.64 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2655650 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
3) (595 Fos+mel/793 mel), similar in magnitude to the light-induced Fos expression in melanopsin ipRGCs in wild-type animals (p>0.17, Fishers exact test; Table 1).
Gene_expression (expression) of melanopsin
18) Confidence 0.64 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2655650 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
It has since become clear, however, that the Opn4tauLacZ transgenic reporter line employed in the most comprehensive of those rodent studies has incomplete penetrance and labels only around 50% of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells [11],[13],[16]–[17].
Gene_expression (expressing) of melanopsin in retinal ganglion cells associated with ganglion cysts and targeted disruption
19) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2998442 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.09
In the mammalian retina, rods/cones of the outer retina are known to mediate image-forming vision [11], [12], while photoreceptive melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) of the inner retina sub serve most non-image-forming responses to light [13], [14], [15], [16], [17].
Gene_expression (expressing) of melanopsin in cones associated with ganglion cysts
20) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2993953 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0.08

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