INT171134

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Context Info
Confidence 0.65
First Reported 2002
Last Reported 2010
Negated 3
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 67
Total Number 70
Disease Relevance 32.55
Pain Relevance 13.61

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (CD28) plasma membrane (CD28)
Anatomy Link Frequency
T cells 33
joint 5
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte 2
blood 2
CD86 2
CD28 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
spinal inflammation 1030 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 601 99.42 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 815 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
rheumatoid arthritis 650 99.06 Very High Very High Very High
abatacept 664 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
adenocard 10 98.56 Very High Very High Very High
Arthritis 630 97.96 Very High Very High Very High
tolerance 60 96.48 Very High Very High Very High
psoriasis 19 94.90 High High
chemokine 519 82.44 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Apoptosis 333 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Low Back Pain 1102 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Aging 624 99.38 Very High Very High Very High
Epstein-barr Virus 232 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 883 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Rheumatoid Arthritis 675 99.06 Very High Very High Very High
Synovitis 44 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 1011 98.88 Very High Very High Very High
Death 152 98.70 Very High Very High Very High
Cytomegalovirus Infection 314 98.12 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
M of each peptide) or cultured with the vehicle (DMSO), in the presence of FastImmune CD28/CD49d costimulation cocktail (BD Biosciences) for 18 h and in the presence of brefeldin A (BD Biosciences) for the last 16 h.
Gene_expression (presence) of CD28
1) Confidence 0.65 Published 2007 Journal J Immune Based Ther Vaccines Section Body Doc Link PMC1852106 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0
antibodies (R & D Systems Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) and soluble monoclonal anti-CD28 antibodies (BD Biosciences Pharmingen, San Diego, CA, USA) were added to the medium at a concentration of 0.8 ?
Gene_expression (antibodies) of anti-CD28
2) Confidence 0.65 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1297564 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.03
The aim of this study was to quantify the CD8+ CD28-compartment in a cohort of AS patients in comparison with a healthy control group, and to correlate the level of these cells with clinical parameters of disease progression and seropositivity to EBV and CMV.


Gene_expression (quantify) of CD28 associated with spinal inflammation, cytomegalovirus infection, epstein-barr virus and disease progression
3) Confidence 0.64 Published 2002 Journal Arthritis Res Section Body Doc Link PMC64855 Disease Relevance 1.79 Pain Relevance 0.47
in vivo on PRR expression of CD4+CD28null T cells
Gene_expression (expression) of CD28null in T cells
4) Confidence 0.63 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1297589 Disease Relevance 0.11 Pain Relevance 0.11
In our experiments both the addition of recombinant sCD14 and autologous serum had a comparable additional effect on LPS-induced perforin production of CD4+CD28null T cells, which indicates serum LPS binding protein not to be indispensable in AS.
Neg (not) Gene_expression (production) of CD28null in T cells associated with spinal inflammation
5) Confidence 0.63 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1297589 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0.39
As expected, LPS-induced perforin production of CD4+CD28null T cells was reversed by blocking sCD14 and mCD14 (24.0 ± 16.3% versus 3.1 ± 2.5% perforin+ cells, P = 0.006) but not by isotype control antibody (Figure 5b).
Gene_expression (production) of CD28null in T cells
6) Confidence 0.63 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1297589 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.24
LPS-mediated perforin production of CD4+CD28null T cells depends on CD14 and TLR4
Gene_expression (production) of CD28null in T cells
7) Confidence 0.63 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1297589 Disease Relevance 0.69 Pain Relevance 0.42
The major exception to this was T cell activation: the proportion of CD8 (cytotoxic T cells) was greater in preterm, but not in term, labour; and the percentage of T cells expressing CD26 (adenosine de-aminase complexing protein 2, www.hcdm.org) and the absolute T cell expression of CD28 antigen (www.hcdm.org, Tp44) (which mediates co-stimulatory signals, amplifying interleukin production) was greater in preterm, but not in term, labour.
Gene_expression (expression) of Tp44 in T cell associated with adenocard
8) Confidence 0.58 Published 2009 Journal Molecular Human Reproduction Section Body Doc Link PMC2762373 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.17
This signal is mediated by CD80 and CD86, which is expressed on antigen-presenting cells, and by CD28, which is expressed on T cells.
Gene_expression (expressed) of CD28 in CD86
9) Confidence 0.57 Published 2007 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1906816 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.66
In our study, the levels of CD8+ CD28- T cells were not correlated with the age of the subjects, whereas others had observed an accumulation of CD8+ CD28-T cells in the elderly, including centenarians [12,13,14].
Gene_expression (levels) of CD28 in T cells
10) Confidence 0.55 Published 2002 Journal Arthritis Res Section Body Doc Link PMC64855 Disease Relevance 1.04 Pain Relevance 0.35
On the other hand, levels of CD4+CD28- T cells did not differ between patients who were positive or negative for CMV IgG (7.9 ± 8.5% and 6.4 ± 5.5%, respectively).
Gene_expression (levels) of CD28 in T cells associated with cytomegalovirus infection
11) Confidence 0.55 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 1.11 Pain Relevance 0.18
Low levels of inhibitory NKB1 were detected on CD4+CD28- T cells (2.8 ± 4.4% versus 0.2 ± 0.1%; P = 0.003), whereas CD158a/h (KIR2DL1/ KIR2DS1) was detected neither on CD4+CD28- nor on CD4+CD28+ T cells (0.7 ± 1.9% versus 0.1 ± 0.1%).
Neg (neither) Gene_expression (detected) of CD28 in T cells
12) Confidence 0.55 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
In addition, CD4+CD28- T cells produce perforin, a membranolytic protein that is expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells, providing them with the ability to lyse target cells.
Gene_expression (produce) of CD28 in cytotoxic T cells
13) Confidence 0.55 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 1.19 Pain Relevance 0.56
This co-incubation with HLA-B27 transfected C1R cells resulted in an increased expression of CD25 on CD4+CD28- T cells in the presence of cross-linking of T cell receptors as compared with co-incubation with nontransfected C1R cells (P = 0.012) and cross-linking of T cell receptors alone (P = 0.012; Fig. 5a).
Gene_expression (expression) of CD28 in T cell
14) Confidence 0.55 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Because CD4+CD28+ and CD4+CD28- T cells were maintained under identical conditions, differences in the apoptotic rate cannot be attributed to tissue culture conditions.
Gene_expression (maintained) of CD28 in T cells associated with apoptosis
15) Confidence 0.55 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 0.59 Pain Relevance 0.12
There was no correlation between the levels of CD4+CD28- T cells and the EBV IgG titres.
Gene_expression (levels) of CD28 in T cells associated with epstein-barr virus
16) Confidence 0.55 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 0.98 Pain Relevance 0.17
Apoptosis and functional characterization of CD4+CD28- T cells
Gene_expression (Apoptosis) of CD28 in T cells associated with apoptosis
17) Confidence 0.55 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0.16
We suspect that increased levels of CD3+CD4+CD28- T cells in the elderly may be a consequence of reduced apoptosis and persistence of these cells after an inflammatory disease over the years.
Gene_expression (levels) of CD28 in T cells associated with inflammation, disease and apoptosis
18) Confidence 0.55 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 1.44 Pain Relevance 0.47
Expression of natural killer cell surface markers on CD4+CD28- T cells
Gene_expression (Expression) of CD28 in T cells
19) Confidence 0.55 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 0.11 Pain Relevance 0.04
From the clinical perspective, the presence of CD4+CD28- T cells in AS patients did not correlate with disease parameters such as time from onset of symptoms or disease duration, with serological parameters such as levels of C-reactive protein and blood cell counts, and with established clinical measurements such as scores for functional impairment (BASFI), disease status (BASMI) and general health (HAQ-S) [28-30].
Gene_expression (presence) of CD28 in blood cell associated with spinal inflammation and disease
20) Confidence 0.55 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 1.13 Pain Relevance 0.43

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