INT173336

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Context Info
Confidence 0.27
First Reported 2003
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 16
Total Number 16
Disease Relevance 6.74
Pain Relevance 2.78

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

mitochondrion (GLUL) small molecule metabolic process (GLUL) lyase activity (GLUL)
Golgi apparatus (GLUL) intracellular (GLUL) ligase activity (GLUL)
Anatomy Link Frequency
chondrocytes 1
pituitary 1
urine 1
frontal cortex 1
GLUL (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Glutamate 36 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate receptor 5 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 38 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 33 98.66 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 44 98.46 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoarthritis 83 98.36 Very High Very High Very High
Neurotransmitter 27 97.60 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 147 97.48 Very High Very High Very High
adenocard 12 96.28 Very High Very High Very High
GABAergic 36 96.16 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Syndrome 54 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Adhesions 54 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 41 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Increased Venous Pressure Under Development 18 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Cystitis 20 98.88 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 1 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 48 98.46 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoarthritis 85 98.36 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 28 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 70 95.80 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
We selected two proteins, possibly involved in the OA process, on which to perform additional studies in order to verify their altered expression in GS and CS-treated chondrocytes: GRP78 and SOD2.
Gene_expression (expression) of GS in chondrocytes associated with osteoarthritis
1) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2945029 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.09
Three of these proteins were found to be positively modulated only by GS: peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX1: redox process), HSPB1 (stress response) and collagen alpha-1(VI) chain precursor (CO6A1: cell adhesion).
Gene_expression (modulated) of GS associated with stress and adhesions
2) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2945029 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0
Megakaryocytes and platelets express the Gs-coupled VPAC1 receptor, for which both the pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and the vasointestinal peptide (VIP) are specific agonists.
Gene_expression (express) of Gs in pituitary associated with agonist
3) Confidence 0.24 Published 2007 Journal Eur J Pediatr Section Body Doc Link PMC2042511 Disease Relevance 0.97 Pain Relevance 0.08
A congenital Gs hyperfunction syndrome was described in three patients of two unrelated families due to a paternally inherited functional polymorphism in the extra-large stimulatory G-protein gene (XL?
Gene_expression (syndrome) of Gs associated with syndrome
4) Confidence 0.24 Published 2007 Journal Eur J Pediatr Section Body Doc Link PMC2042511 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.05
One possible explanation for this discrepancy may be the relative participation of inflammatory cytokines in different subpopulations; and it is also hypothesized that the effects of GS and CS are better realized in patients with more severe OA, which have greater involvement of interleukin-1beta (IL-1?)
Gene_expression (effects) of GS associated with inflammation, osteoarthritis and cytokine
5) Confidence 0.24 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2945029 Disease Relevance 1.00 Pain Relevance 0.71
Therefore, we could use drugs with distinct chemical structures (Figure S1) to activate Gs or Gs/Gq signaling of Rs1.
Gene_expression (signaling) of Gs
6) Confidence 0.16 Published 2007 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2267039 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
Therefore, we could use drugs with distinct chemical structures (Figure S1) to activate Gs or Gs/Gq signaling of Rs1.
Gene_expression (signaling) of Gs
7) Confidence 0.14 Published 2007 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2267039 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
We found only constitutive Gs signaling in Rs1 but did not observe any constitutive Gq signaling.
Gene_expression (signaling) of Gs
8) Confidence 0.14 Published 2007 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2267039 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.10
Individual bipolar NSC-derived cells were seen to express strong immunoreactivity for glutamate receptor subunit 2 and 3 (GluR2/3) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and to be contacted by terminals enriched in these two neurotransmitter markers.
Gene_expression (express) of glutamate decarboxylase associated with neurotransmitter, glutamate, generalized anxiety disorder and glutamate receptor
9) Confidence 0.11 Published 2007 Journal PLoS Medicine Section Body Doc Link PMC1796906 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.47
GS glutamine synthetase

Authors' contributions

Gene_expression (synthetase) of glutamine
10) Confidence 0.10 Published 2005 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC1187899 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.10
Individual bipolar NSC-derived cells were seen to express strong immunoreactivity for glutamate receptor subunit 2 and 3 (GluR2/3) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and to be contacted by terminals enriched in these two neurotransmitter markers.
Gene_expression (express) of glutamate decarboxylase associated with neurotransmitter, glutamate, generalized anxiety disorder and glutamate receptor
11) Confidence 0.09 Published 2007 Journal PLoS Medicine Section Body Doc Link PMC1796906 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.47
Glutamine synthetase (glnA), which assimilates ammonia with high affinity in an energy-dependent manner and is transcriptionally induced by nitrogen-limited growth [44], was among the most highly expressed genes in urine from 5 of 8 cystitis patients (Table 1).
Gene_expression (expressed) of Glutamine synthetase in urine associated with cystitis
12) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2978726 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.04
The Glutamate, Adhesion, Frizzled, Secretin and Taste2 families
Gene_expression (families) of Glutamate associated with glutamate and adhesions
13) Confidence 0.01 Published 2007 Journal BMC Genomics Section Body Doc Link PMC2117022 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.14
This microorganism contains additional genetic modifications that increase phosphoglucoisomerase, glutamine synthetase and glucose 6-P dehydrogenase activities and inactivate phosphofructokinase and genes encoding the enzymes responsible for glycogen synthesis to control the flux of metabolites.
Gene_expression (glutamine synthetase) of glutamine synthetase
14) Confidence 0.01 Published 2010 Journal Marine Drugs Section Body Doc Link PMC2953398 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
s increases both basal and Gs-coupled receptor-mediated cAMP production [46].
Gene_expression (production) of Gs-coupled receptor
15) Confidence 0.01 Published 2003 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC152647 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0
Decreased levels of brain and CSF GABA, increased levels of CSF and cortical glutamate, and decreased levels of PLP in the frontal cortex, have been described in this condition.
Gene_expression (levels) of glutamate in frontal cortex associated with glutamate, gaba and urological neuroanatomy
16) Confidence 0.01 Published 2004 Journal BMC Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC544830 Disease Relevance 1.54 Pain Relevance 0.45

General Comments

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