INT174550

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Context Info
Confidence 0.33
First Reported 2003
Last Reported 2009
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 7
Total Number 8
Disease Relevance 4.70
Pain Relevance 1.06

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (Cd28)
Anatomy Link Frequency
T cells 3
dendritic cells 1
Cd28 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
rheumatoid arthritis 213 97.08 Very High Very High Very High
psoriasis 6 95.12 Very High Very High Very High
Kinase C 18 94.72 High High
cytokine 34 84.08 Quite High
Inflammation 51 79.84 Quite High
abatacept 18 79.48 Quite High
methotrexate 2 70.36 Quite High
spinal inflammation 6 66.12 Quite High
Multiple sclerosis 4 65.00 Quite High
withdrawal 6 56.56 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Disease 97 97.88 Very High Very High Very High
Apoptosis 34 97.20 Very High Very High Very High
Rheumatoid Arthritis 213 97.08 Very High Very High Very High
Psoriasis 6 95.12 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 7 94.32 High High
Necrosis 15 94.08 High High
Cancer 18 93.72 High High
Opportunistic Infections 1 93.04 High High
Rheumatoid Vasculitis 6 93.00 High High
Aging 36 92.52 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
At first sight, the loss of CD28 would suggest that these cells are functionally anergic and prone to apoptosis; however, the opposite is the case.
Negative_regulation (loss) of CD28 associated with apoptosis
1) Confidence 0.33 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193735 Disease Relevance 1.38 Pain Relevance 0.29
The most widely acknowledged phenotypic change is the loss of CD28, which increases in frequency in the CD8+ T-cell population with age but which also occurs in CD4+ T cells to a lesser degree [46-48].
Negative_regulation (loss) of CD28 in T cells
2) Confidence 0.33 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193735 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0.08
Loss of CD28 occurs normally with age, but this process may be accelerated in susceptible individuals.
Negative_regulation (Loss) of CD28
3) Confidence 0.31 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2582810 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 0
It is possible that CD28 blockade works upstream of these effector cells and that the disease activity in RA is dependent on the continuous recruitment of naïve and central memory cells into the effector cell pool.
Spec (possible) Negative_regulation (blockade) of CD28 associated with rheumatoid arthritis and disease
4) Confidence 0.31 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2582810 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0.18
It is expressed on all subsets of T cells, including effector cell populations that have lost the classical co-stimulatory molecules CD28 and CD27.
Negative_regulation (lost) of CD28 in T cells
5) Confidence 0.31 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2582810 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.18
This selective blockade of CD28-dependent activation pathways was also observed in experimental animal studies [53]; CD28 deficient mice exhibited normal immune function in models of infection both before and after treatment with CTLA4–Ig.


Negative_regulation (blockade) of CD28-dependent associated with infection
6) Confidence 0.27 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2833979 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0.27
In APC/T cell co-cultures, mature dendritic cells (DC) were less efficient than immature DC in their ability to support Th17 cell differentiation, while CTLA4-Ig, an agent blocking CD28/B7 and CTLA4/B7 interactions, facilitated both murine and human Th17 differentiation.
Negative_regulation (blocking) of CD28 in dendritic cells
7) Confidence 0.26 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2658739 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0
However, CD28 loss is not the only, and possibly not the most prominent, change in gene expression in senescent T cells.
Negative_regulation (loss) of CD28 in T cells
8) Confidence 0.25 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193735 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.06

General Comments

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