INT174557

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Context Info
Confidence 0.43
First Reported 2003
Last Reported 2009
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 7
Total Number 7
Disease Relevance 4.42
Pain Relevance 1.20

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (Cd28)
Anatomy Link Frequency
T cell 10
Effector T-cell 2
Cd28 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
abatacept 16 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 22 98.78 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 66 98.70 Very High Very High Very High
rheumatoid arthritis 183 98.30 Very High Very High Very High
tolerance 18 94.96 High High
Multiple sclerosis 1 94.40 High High
spinal inflammation 9 93.44 High High
methotrexate 3 58.72 Quite High
Arthritis 17 50.00 Quite Low
psoriasis 6 20.60 Low Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
INFLAMMATION 70 98.70 Very High Very High Very High
Rheumatoid Arthritis 184 98.30 Very High Very High Very High
Autoimmune Disease 60 97.56 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 15 96.36 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 11 96.34 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 14 96.16 Very High Very High Very High
Demyelinating Disease 1 94.40 High High
Hypersensitivity 4 94.32 High High
Injury 2 93.76 High High
Low Back Pain 2 93.44 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
One contributing factor may be tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which has been shown to downregulate the number of CD28 molecules that are expressed on each individual cell and which may also in part be responsible for the complete loss of CD28 expression in some cells [19].
Negative_regulation (loss) of Gene_expression (expression) of CD28 associated with necrosis and cancer
1) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2582810 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 0
Effector T-cell populations expanded in RA are unlikely to be amenable to CTLA-4Ig, in particular because they have frequently lost CD28 expression, which is in sharp contrast to rodent systems.
Negative_regulation (lost) of Gene_expression (expression) of CD28 in Effector T-cell associated with rheumatoid arthritis
2) Confidence 0.31 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2582810 Disease Relevance 0.96 Pain Relevance 0.17
CD28 is expressed on all naïve T cells, but may be lost with T-cell differentiation.
Negative_regulation (lost) of Gene_expression (expressed) of CD28 in T-cell
3) Confidence 0.31 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2582810 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0
In a chronic inflammatory environment, T-cells may feature particular phenotypes, such as lack of surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD28 (Schmidt et al 1996).
Negative_regulation (lack) of Gene_expression (expression) of CD28 in T-cells associated with inflammation
4) Confidence 0.30 Published 2008 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2515420 Disease Relevance 1.21 Pain Relevance 0.30
These cells, lacking CD28 on their cell surface, do not rely on co-stimulation for reactivation [52], and as potent producers of proinflammatory cytokines they may be at an advantage if the rest of the T cell pool, expressing CD28, is suppressed by abatacept.
Negative_regulation (suppressed) of Gene_expression (expressing) of CD28 in T cell associated with abatacept and cytokine
5) Confidence 0.27 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2833979 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.38
Expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that have lost the expression of CD28, and are presumably senescent, has been observed in several autoimmune diseases including diabetes mellitus, RA, Wegener's granulomatosis, multiple sclerosis, and ankylosing spondylitis [60-64].
Negative_regulation (lost) of Gene_expression (expression) of CD28 in T cells associated with spinal inflammation, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune disease, diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis
6) Confidence 0.25 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193735 Disease Relevance 1.08 Pain Relevance 0.35
Secondly, using 2C T cells deficient in CD28 or LFA-1 expression and mAbs blocking interactions of those receptors with their ligands, it is feasible to probe the contributing roles of TCR/pMHC, CD28/B7-1 and LFA-1/ICAM-1 interactions in the pMV-absorption.

2C T cell absorption of LdB7-1ICAM-1 Dros pMVs

Negative_regulation (deficient) of Gene_expression (expression) of CD28 in T cell
7) Confidence 0.19 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2698288 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0

General Comments

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