INT175652

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Context Info
Confidence 0.44
First Reported 2004
Last Reported 2009
Negated 0
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 9
Total Number 16
Disease Relevance 17.98
Pain Relevance 1.14

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

mitochondrion (BPHL) cellular amino acid metabolic process (BPHL)
Anatomy Link Frequency
arm 1
neuromuscular junctions 1
BPHL (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Botox 112 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Neurotransmitter 11 99.02 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 112 97.96 Very High Very High Very High
Prostatitis 7 96.88 Very High Very High Very High
chronic pain syndrome 2 95.80 Very High Very High Very High
COX2 6 93.92 High High
imagery 1 88.88 High High
withdrawal 28 73.68 Quite High
agonist 1 55.96 Quite High
Inflammatory response 1 48.92 Quite Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy 1255 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Prostate Cancer 367 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms 197 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Overactive Bladder 165 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Reprotox - General 1 112 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Diuresis 76 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hematuria 22 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 97 97.40 Very High Very High Very High
Complex Regional Pain Syndromes 2 95.80 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperplasia 50 94.52 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Prostate volumes greater than 30 to 40 mL are also associated with significantly higher rates of BPH-related events.3,4 The improvement in AUASS and Qmax with 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors is significantly different from placebo.3,4,40 Open label extensions of early trials show that the results of finasteride are durable without increases in adverse events at 6 to 10 years.35,48,49 Prior to release of MTOPS data, alpha adrenergic receptor antagonists seemed to have a greater impact on improvement in Qmax and AUASS.24–26,50 However, results of the MTOPS trial clearly show that the combination of alpha adrenergic receptor antagonists and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors has the greatest impact on Qmax and AUASS.4 Therefore, it is reasonable to use combination therapy on most men, and reserve 5-alpha-reductase monotherapy for those men that cannot tolerate alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists because of side effects, those that are unwilling to pay for two medications, or those men with large volume prostates or elevated PSA who are at a high risk of progression without LUTS.
Positive_regulation (rates) of BPH-related associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy, antagonist and lower urinary tract symptoms
1) Confidence 0.44 Published 2009 Journal Patient Prefer Adherence Section Body Doc Link PMC2778433 Disease Relevance 0.76 Pain Relevance 0.15
They have also proven to be beneficial in the prevention of BPH progression, as measured by prostate volume, the risk of developing acute urinary retention, and the risk of having BPH-related surgery.3 The use of an alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist and a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor as combination therapy seeks to provide symptomatic relief while preventing progression of BPH and has been validated by the Medical Therapy of Prostate Symptoms (MTOPS) trial.4 Anti-cholinergic agents and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors have also recently shown efficacy in the management of LUTS.
Positive_regulation (having) of BPH-related associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy, antagonist, overactive bladder and lower urinary tract symptoms
2) Confidence 0.38 Published 2009 Journal Patient Prefer Adherence Section Body Doc Link PMC2778433 Disease Relevance 1.24 Pain Relevance 0.13
Recent studies demonstrate that 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors are effective in the treatment of BPH-induced hematuria,41 probably through their effect on prostate microvessel density.42 Multiple studies now support the role of short-term 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor monotherapy prior to definitive surgical resection in order to decrease hematuria during and after the procedure.43,44

5-alpha-reductase inhibitor and alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist combination therapy

Positive_regulation (treatment) of BPH-induced associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy, antagonist and hematuria
3) Confidence 0.38 Published 2009 Journal Patient Prefer Adherence Section Body Doc Link PMC2778433 Disease Relevance 1.18 Pain Relevance 0.04
Two small clinical pilot studies had been conducted in the US using AE injections,[1831] which then stimulated the formal evaluation of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval as an investigational new drug (IND) for treatment of BPH (IND #61337).
Spec (investigational) Positive_regulation (stimulated) of BPH associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy
4) Confidence 0.37 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Urology : IJU : Journal of the Urological Society of India Section Body Doc Link PMC2684358 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0
-reductase reduces the clinical progression of BPH, an effect that is further enhanced by the addition of an ?
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of BPH associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy
5) Confidence 0.24 Published 2007 Journal Clinical Interventions in Aging Section Body Doc Link PMC2684085 Disease Relevance 1.08 Pain Relevance 0.08
However, extensive data from the placebo arm of the Proscar Long-term Efficacy and Safety Study (PLESS) have demonstrated that PSA is a strong predictor of an enlarged prostate, or one that is likely to increase in size, as well as the risk of developing LUTS, poor urinary flow, AUR and/or BPH-related surgery (19).
Positive_regulation (increase) of BPH-related in arm associated with diuresis, benign prostatic hypertrophy, overactive bladder and lower urinary tract symptoms
6) Confidence 0.22 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Clinical Practice Section Body Doc Link PMC2440415 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0.04
A number of genes were found to be consistently upregulated in BPH compared to normal prostate.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of BPH associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy
7) Confidence 0.13 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2793011 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.05
Fourteen genes were identified as being highly elevated in BPH and had BPH/PCa expression ratios of at least 5-fold (table 4).
Positive_regulation (elevated) of BPH associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy
8) Confidence 0.13 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2793011 Disease Relevance 1.64 Pain Relevance 0.04
Some of the genes had expression levels that were particularly elevated in BPH, but relatively lower in the prostate cancer pools.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of BPH associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer
9) Confidence 0.13 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2793011 Disease Relevance 2.14 Pain Relevance 0
FGF2, SMOC1 and TIMP2 were chosen for IHC testing, as these genes had markedly increased RNA expression levels in BPH relative to controls, and antibodies were available that produced specific and satisfactory staining of human TZ tissues.
Positive_regulation (increased) of BPH associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy
10) Confidence 0.13 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2793011 Disease Relevance 1.08 Pain Relevance 0
Of these, 72 genes were determined to have a greater than 6-fold higher level than the normal control pool in at least one of the BPH or prostate cancer pools.
Positive_regulation (one) of BPH associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer
11) Confidence 0.09 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2793011 Disease Relevance 1.30 Pain Relevance 0
When we examined the expression of a subset of these highly expressed genes from the microarray data by RT-PCR in BPH tissues, we found several with elevated levels in BPH tissues relative to normal controls.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of BPH associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy
12) Confidence 0.09 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2793011 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0
In aging men with late-onset hypogonadism, TRT may normalize serum androgen levels but appears to have little effect on prostate tissue androgen levels and cellular functions266 and causes no significant adverse affects on the prostate.267 At the present time, there is no conclusive evidence that testosterone therapy increases the risk of prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).45,268,269
Positive_regulation (increases) of BPH associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy, aging, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and reprotox - general 1
13) Confidence 0.07 Published 2009 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2701485 Disease Relevance 1.38 Pain Relevance 0
Recent studies have suggested that BTA is able to be used as an alternative treatment for BPH, and it is effective enough to control both mechanical and dynamic components of BPH.5,6 These suggestions are based on studies which concluded that chemical denervation using BTA causes subsequent atrophy of the gland,5 that cholinergic stimulation causes prostatic stromal smooth muscle contraction,7 and that BTA blocks acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junctions and in autonomic neurons.
Positive_regulation (treatment) of BPH in neuromuscular junctions associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy, frailty and botox
14) Confidence 0.05 Published 2006 Journal Yonsei Medical Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2687757 Disease Relevance 1.42 Pain Relevance 0.57
These pathological events are caused by significant alteration of neurotransmitter/growth factor influence on the prostate and may result in BPH.
Spec (may) Positive_regulation (result) of BPH associated with neurotransmitter and benign prostatic hypertrophy
15) Confidence 0.05 Published 2006 Journal Yonsei Medical Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2687757 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0.05
Sinha et al., reported that CathB activity was elevated in prostate cancer tissue samples compared to BPH and normal tissue samples [111].
Positive_regulation (elevated) of BPH associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer
16) Confidence 0.03 Published 2004 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC320496 Disease Relevance 1.52 Pain Relevance 0

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