INT17620

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1990
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 23
Total Number 30
Disease Relevance 9.77
Pain Relevance 3.79

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Gnrh1) extracellular region (Gnrh1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 7
plasma 4
pituitary 3
capsules 1
Leydig cells 1
Gnrh1 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
GABAergic 16 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 22 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
imagery 16 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 7 99.40 Very High Very High Very High
tetrodotoxin 9 99.38 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 2 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 29 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 43 98.48 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 3 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 25 92.32 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Aids-related Complex 567 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis 12 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome 32 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Reprotox - General 1 91 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
Alzheimer's Dementia 14 98.80 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 55 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
Cyst 60 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
Virilism 45 97.80 Very High Very High Very High
Reprotox - General 2 18 97.80 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 54 94.88 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Inhibition of spontaneous synaptic activity by GABA(A) antagonists, bicuculline (10(-5) M) or picrotoxin (10(-4) M), or of electrical activity by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10(-6) M) significantly increased LHRH mRNA levels.
Positive_regulation (increased) of LHRH mRNA associated with tetrodotoxin, gaba and antagonist
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 1998 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 9607779 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.62
Interestingly, there was also a significant increase in male hpg AVPV kisspeptin-positive neurons during maturation (P<0.05; ANOVA) (Fig. 1).
Positive_regulation (increase) of hpg in neurons
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2912854 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Such mice are unable to produce gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) due to a truncation in the GnRH gene, and therefore show a profound hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism [[5] for review].
Positive_regulation (truncation) of GnRH associated with reprotox - general 2
3) Confidence 0.50 Published 2005 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC1249589 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0
Acute tetrodotoxin treatment decreased the amplitude of calcium peaks in individual GnRH-1 neurons and the duration but not the frequency of synchronized activity in the population of GnRH-1 neurons.
Positive_regulation (population) of GnRH-1 in neurons associated with tetrodotoxin
4) Confidence 0.50 Published 2002 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12388600 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.33
In the absence of GnRH, reproductive maturation does not occur, although it might be predicted that central activation of the neuronal network upstream of GnRH would proceed normally as long as these stimuli are not dependent on reproductive hormones.
Positive_regulation (activation) of GnRH in neuronal
5) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2912854 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0
Kisspeptinergic activity satisfies important criteria as a signal necessary for puberty: 1) disruptive mutations and genetic models with ablated kisspeptin signaling are hypogonadal and fail to undergo pubertal maturation [4], [5]; 2) at puberty, increased hypothalamic kisspeptin corresponds with the time of increased GnRH release [6], [7]; and 3) kisspeptin administration to juvenile animal models elicits precocious activation of the reproductive axis [8].
Positive_regulation (increased) of GnRH in juvenile
6) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2912854 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.12
In functional tests of hpg kisspeptin neuron responsiveness, the distribution of kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the OVX+E2-treated hpg ARC was restored to the pattern found in WT mice.
Positive_regulation (restored) of hpg in neuron associated with aids-related complex
7) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2912854 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0.07
Tetrodotoxin (TTX), which eliminates action-potential-dependent presynaptic effects, did not alter frequency, suggesting DHT may have increased PSC frequency by increasing connectivity between GABAergic and GnRH neurons.
Positive_regulation (increasing) of GnRH in neurons associated with tetrodotoxin, gabaergic and primary sclerosing cholangitis
8) Confidence 0.50 Published 2005 Journal Biol. Reprod. Section Abstract Doc Link 15342358 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0.58
In contrast, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, OVX+E+DHT) increased both GABAergic PSC frequency and size in GnRH neurons.
Positive_regulation (increased) of GnRH in neurons associated with gabaergic and primary sclerosing cholangitis
9) Confidence 0.50 Published 2005 Journal Biol. Reprod. Section Abstract Doc Link 15342358 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.56
Responses of serum LH to GnRH (100 micrograms i.v.) and the opioid antagonist naloxone (10 mg i.v.) were determined in healthy women in the early (n = 5) and late (n = 4) follicular phase, and in patients with PCOD (n = 20).
Spec (determined) Positive_regulation (Responses) of GnRH associated with antagonist, narcan, polycystic ovary syndrome and opioid
10) Confidence 0.45 Published 1991 Journal Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Section Abstract Doc Link 1927298 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.20
In view of the evidence of successful androgenization in at least some of the hpg males and female siblings, our interpretation of the current studies is that the increase pituitary FSH content in male hpg mice in response to estradiol is not a failure of early masculinization or defeminization.
Positive_regulation (increase) of hpg in pituitary associated with virilism
11) Confidence 0.44 Published 2005 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC1249589 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0
Thus, the increase in FSH production in response to estradiol in hpg mice ("positive feedback") might be considered to be a "female" neuroendocrine response.
Positive_regulation (increase) of hpg
12) Confidence 0.44 Published 2005 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC1249589 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0
We also observed an increased number of Leydig cells in hpg mice treated with the high dose of FSH.
Positive_regulation (increased) of hpg in Leydig cells
13) Confidence 0.44 Published 2008 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC2254628 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
However, we have also observed that chronic estradiol treatment alone can induce spermatogenesis in hpg mice [9,15,16], though this is associated with paradoxical increases in pituitary and serum FSH concentrations.
Positive_regulation (induce) of hpg in pituitary
14) Confidence 0.44 Published 2008 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC2254628 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0
Pulsatile GnRH release is required for fertility and is regulated by steroid feedback.
Positive_regulation (required) of GnRH
15) Confidence 0.44 Published 2003 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 12960018 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.12
Based on earlier studies that described ARC kisspeptin neurons as mediators of sex steroid negative feedback [9], [10], it was predicted that ARC Kiss1 expression would be increased in hpg mice.
Positive_regulation (increased) of hpg in neurons associated with aids-related complex
16) Confidence 0.41 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2912854 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0
E2 levels were significantly higher in mice receiving E2-filled capsules compared to control OVX mice receiving empty capsules, and uterine weights increased significantly in both the E2-treated OVX WT and hpg females (data not shown).
Positive_regulation (increased) of hpg in uterine
17) Confidence 0.41 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2912854 Disease Relevance 0.11 Pain Relevance 0
In the hpg mice receiving estradiol only, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in circulating FSH (Fig. 3E).
Positive_regulation (increase) of hpg
18) Confidence 0.41 Published 2008 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC2254628 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
At 1.3 years, plasma basal LH and FSH concentrations and their response to GnRH test and estradiol were prepubertal.
Positive_regulation (response) of GnRH in plasma
19) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2892512 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0
Gonadotropins response to the GnRH test was again prepubertal (peaks LH 3.6 and FSH 14.3 IU/l, with plasma concentrations of 37 pmol/l for estradiol, 6.5 pmol/l for AMH and <10 pg/ml for inhibin B).
Positive_regulation (response) of GnRH in plasma
20) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2892512 Disease Relevance 0.68 Pain Relevance 0.06

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