INT177557

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Context Info
Confidence 0.48
First Reported 2004
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 12
Total Number 21
Disease Relevance 5.47
Pain Relevance 0.61

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

unfolded protein binding (Calr) Golgi apparatus (Calr) endoplasmic reticulum (Calr)
cytoplasm (Calr) cytosol (Calr) protein folding (Calr)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 2
CPA 2
muscles 1
adipose tissue 1
body 1
Calr (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Inflammation 219 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 33 75.40 Quite High
cytokine 16 70.64 Quite High
Calcium channel 20 39.68 Quite Low
anesthesia 27 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Inflammatory stimuli 18 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
ketamine 10 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Glutamate 10 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Spinal cord 3 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Inflammatory response 3 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 280 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 94 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Myositis 252 99.34 Very High Very High Very High
Death 19 93.80 High High
Injury 11 93.76 High High
INFLAMMATION 186 93.04 High High
Infection 61 81.52 Quite High
Shock 2 78.24 Quite High
Disease 47 78.00 Quite High
Cancer 29 74.08 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Although this suggestion is ruled out by the fact that parasites were washed twice with PBS before subcellular fractionation, it might be further speculated that an increased TcCRT secretion might in turn result in an increased TcCRT unspecific adherence to T. cruzi plasma membrane, which in turn would contaminate in some way the cytosolic fraction.
Positive_regulation (increased) of TcCRT in plasma
1) Confidence 0.48 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2950133 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
This experiment shows that the increase of cytosolic TcCRT induced by CPA was a consequence of its relocalization to the cytosol and not of an increased association to the plasma membrane and a subsequent contamination of the cytosolic fraction.


Positive_regulation (increase) of TcCRT in plasma
2) Confidence 0.48 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2950133 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Except for sporadic inclusion-body myositis, where the ER chaperones calnexin, calreticulin, Grp78, Grp94 and ERp72 are upregulated and colocalize with intracellular aggregates [11,12], the present knowledge about changes in ER chaperone level and distribution among myofibers of myositis patients is far from complete.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of calreticulin in body associated with myositis
3) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2888201 Disease Relevance 0.68 Pain Relevance 0
Figure 7 and Figure 8 show similar results for PatCRT for the rotation angles and for the inclination angles.
Positive_regulation (results) of PatCRT
4) Confidence 0.42 Published 2006 Journal Biomed Eng Online Section Body Doc Link PMC1636054 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
To address if the increase of cytosolic CRT was due to retrotranslocation from the ER or from a faulty de novo protein synthesis, we treated the parasites with cycloheximide before inhibiting the SERCA.
Positive_regulation (increase) of CRT
5) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2950133 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The presence of cytosolic CRT in mammalian cells depends on CRT-C [31].
Positive_regulation (depends) of CRT
6) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2950133 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
In this case, an increment of biotinylated TcCRT was clearly observed in the cytosolic fraction upon CPA treatment (Figure 7).
Positive_regulation (increment) of TcCRT in CPA
7) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2950133 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The increment in cytosolic CRT observed was relatively rapid, reaching a maximum after ?
Positive_regulation (increment) of CRT
8) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2950133 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Cytosolic TcCRT levels peaked about 15–20 min after ER calcium mobilization and the evidence suggests that the proteasome is involved in the subsequent clearance of CRT from the cytosol.
Positive_regulation (clearance) of CRT
9) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2950133 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Moreover, the fact that enhancement of cytosolic CRT content triggered by CPA treatment occurred even in the absence of protein synthesis also favors the idea that CRT is retrotranslocated from the ER lumen to the cytosol.
Positive_regulation (enhancement) of CRT in CPA
10) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2950133 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Depletion of calcium from the ER by SERCA inhibition induced a time dependent increment of the cytosolic TcCRT of the full length HA-tagged protein (Figure 4A and B) with kinetic similar to that observed with the endogenous protein (Figure 1B), whereas the HA-tagged protein lacking TcCRT-C remained in the ER under all experimental conditions tested (Figure 4C).
Positive_regulation (induced) of TcCRT
11) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2950133 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
As shown in figure 2, panel A, no induction of the ER stress genes BiP, CHOP, calreticulin or Grp58 was observed in FrCasE-infected microglial cultures when compared with mock or Fr57E-infected cells.
Neg (no) Positive_regulation (induction) of calreticulin associated with stress
12) Confidence 0.34 Published 2006 Journal Retrovirology Section Body Doc Link PMC1475625 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0.07
It may be speculated that ER calcium mobilization might promote TcCRT secretion and that this phenomenon may explain, by cross contamination, the increase observed in cytosolic TcCRT.
Positive_regulation (increase) of TcCRT
13) Confidence 0.32 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2950133 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The present study was undertaken to characterize in more detail the ER stress-response occurring in myofibers of patients with inflammatory myopathies, focusing on the expression and distribution of Grp94, calreticulin and Grp75, three ER chaperones involved in immunomodulation.


Positive_regulation (distribution) of calreticulin associated with stress and inflammation
14) Confidence 0.29 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2888201 Disease Relevance 0.83 Pain Relevance 0.16
Conversely, levels of calreticulin and Grp75 increased about fourfold and twofold, respectively, in patient biopsies positive for sarcolemmal MHC-I immunoreactivity, compared with healthy subjects and patients negative for both inflammation and MHC-I labeling (P < 0.005).
Positive_regulation (increased) of calreticulin associated with inflammation
15) Confidence 0.29 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2888201 Disease Relevance 0.81 Pain Relevance 0.19
A significant increase of Grp75 and calreticulin protein levels (P = 0.007 and P = 0.004, respectively) was observed in murine tibialis anterior muscles excised 48 hours after LPS administration, compared with muscles of untreated animals (Figure 5a, b).
Positive_regulation (increase) of calreticulin in muscles
16) Confidence 0.29 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2888201 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.11
The relative amount of calreticulin significantly increased about fourfold and twofold in patients of Groups I and II, respectively, compared with the protein levels detected in Group 0 and Group III biopsies (P = 0.003, ANOVA) (Figure 3a, d).
Positive_regulation (increased) of calreticulin
17) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2888201 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
When normalized calreticulin protein levels were evaluated after redistributing Group I and Group II patients in subgroups based on the degree of MHC-I immunoreactivity, only the biopsies from patients with sarcolemmal MHC-I reactivity detectable in every myofiber (grade ++) displayed a significant increase in calreticulin levels, compared with the levels detected in the other groups (P < 0.001, ANOVA) (Figure 3e).


Positive_regulation (increase) of calreticulin
18) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2888201 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.03
Serum levels of CRT, an endogenous marker of renal function, were transiently elevated in the pCAG/DT-A/FuGENE™6 complex-administered mice, with a peak at day 4, while the other biochemical markers including BUN, Na+, Cl-, and K+ were unaltered through day 4, and at weeks 3 and 5 (Figure 8).
Positive_regulation (elevated) of CRT
19) Confidence 0.15 Published 2004 Journal BMC Nephrol Section Body Doc Link PMC419703 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0
Levels of expression of the following UPR proteins were overexpressed in two-dimensional gels in adipose tissue from obese volunteers: CRT, a protein chaperone, increased from undetectable to 1,019 ± 236 arbitrary units; PDI, a protein foldase, increased approximately threefold; and glutathione-S-transferase P, an antioxidant protein belonging to a UPR-regulated pathway, increased ?
Positive_regulation (increased) of CRT in adipose tissue associated with obesity
20) Confidence 0.06 Published 2008 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2518495 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0

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