INT178261

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Context Info
Confidence 0.55
First Reported 2004
Last Reported 2009
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 23
Total Number 25
Disease Relevance 14.67
Pain Relevance 4.07

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

pigmentation (a) generation of precursor metabolites and energy (a) extracellular region (a)
Anatomy Link Frequency
liver 16
bars 4
hypothalamus 2
melanocytes 2
dorsal 1
a (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
antagonist 26 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
melanocortin 1 receptor 701 98.84 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 14 90.48 High High
Kinase C 3 71.20 Quite High
agonist 26 44.52 Quite Low
tolerance 7 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Targeted Disruption 973 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 463 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperinsulinism 98 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Freckles 51 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 154 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 350 99.18 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperphagia 28 98.86 Very High Very High Very High
Liver Cancer 154 97.84 Very High Very High Very High
Syndrome 98 97.68 Very High Very High Very High
Dislocations 28 93.84 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
For this purpose, we generated lines of transgenic mice expressing high levels of agouti in the liver under the regulatory control of the albumin promoter.
Positive_regulation (levels) of Gene_expression (expressing) of agouti in liver associated with targeted disruption
1) Confidence 0.55 Published 2004 Journal Mol Cancer Section Abstract Doc Link PMC443512 Disease Relevance 1.13 Pain Relevance 0.22
Second, both structural mutations (a single amino acid change reducing Mc1r signaling potential) and regulatory mutations (a derived increase in Agouti expression) contribute to adaptive change, and this change involves both recessive (Mc1r L) and dominant (Agouti L) alleles.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of Agouti associated with melanocortin 1 receptor
2) Confidence 0.51 Published 2007 Journal PLoS Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC1945039 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.38
Because most of the Agouti mutations that produce light coloration in laboratory mice involve gain-of-function cis-regulatory mutations [19], we also tested the prediction that an increase in Agouti expression contributes to the light coloration of beach mice.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of Agouti
3) Confidence 0.51 Published 2007 Journal PLoS Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC1945039 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.28
Together, these results suggest that increased expression of Agouti, caused by either mutation(s) in its cis-regulatory region or in closely linked trans-factors, also contributes to the light phenotype of beach mice.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of Agouti
4) Confidence 0.51 Published 2007 Journal PLoS Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC1945039 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.21
Agouti signaling protein (ASIP)’s morphological effects were very deficient in MGRN1-null melanocytes, consistent with the requirement of MGRN1 for ASIP action in mice.
Positive_regulation (requirement) of Gene_expression (action) of ASIP in melanocytes
5) Confidence 0.50 Published 2009 Journal Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2784899 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.29
Neither 1 nM ASIP nor 1 nM ASIP-YY affected this increase, but 10 nM and 100 nM ASIP reduced it by 2/3 and to zero respectively (Figure 5A, striped bars).
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (affected) of ASIP in bars
6) Confidence 0.44 Published 2009 Journal Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2784899 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Neither 1 nM ASIP nor 1 nM ASIP-YY affected this increase, but 10 nM and 100 nM ASIP reduced it by 2/3 and to zero respectively (Figure 5A, striped bars).
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (affected) of ASIP-YY in bars
7) Confidence 0.44 Published 2009 Journal Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2784899 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Thus, it is unclear why Mc1r has repeatedly been shown to be associated with melanism in nature and a key question is: are melanism-inducing mutations in Agouti not found because they occur less often, or are they simply more difficult to detect?
Positive_regulation (inducing) of Gene_expression (mutations) of Agouti associated with melanocortin 1 receptor and freckles
8) Confidence 0.41 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2713407 Disease Relevance 0.86 Pain Relevance 0.45
For each mRNA sample, the level of agouti expression was reported as the ratio of agouti over Gapd mRNA signals.
Positive_regulation (reported) of Gene_expression (expression) of agouti
9) Confidence 0.39 Published 2004 Journal Mol Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC443512 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0
These results suggest that the hyperinsulinemia, hyperphagia, and obesity in lethal yellow and viable yellow mice is caused primarily by agouti-induced antagonism of Mc4r in the hypothalamus, a center of autonomic regulatory control in the brain [35].
Positive_regulation (caused) of Gene_expression (antagonism) of agouti-induced in hypothalamus associated with hyperphagia, obesity and hyperinsulinism
10) Confidence 0.39 Published 2004 Journal Mol Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC443512 Disease Relevance 1.45 Pain Relevance 0.12
alb-agouti transgenic mice produce functional agouti protein in the liver
Positive_regulation (-) of Gene_expression (produce) of agouti in liver associated with targeted disruption
11) Confidence 0.39 Published 2004 Journal Mol Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC443512 Disease Relevance 0.93 Pain Relevance 0.09
alb-agouti transgenic mice produce functional agouti protein in the liver
Positive_regulation (-) of Gene_expression (produce) of agouti in liver associated with targeted disruption
12) Confidence 0.39 Published 2004 Journal Mol Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC443512 Disease Relevance 0.93 Pain Relevance 0.09
alb-agouti transgenic mice produce functional agouti protein in the liver
Positive_regulation (-) of Gene_expression (transgenic mice) of agouti in liver associated with targeted disruption
13) Confidence 0.39 Published 2004 Journal Mol Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC443512 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0.09
Assay for functional agouti protein
Positive_regulation (functional) of Gene_expression (protein) of agouti
14) Confidence 0.39 Published 2004 Journal Mol Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC443512 Disease Relevance 0.59 Pain Relevance 0
alb-agouti transgenic mice respond to chemical initiation of the liver with an increased number of tumors per liver
Positive_regulation (transgenic mice) of Gene_expression (transgenic mice) of agouti in liver associated with targeted disruption and cancer
15) Confidence 0.39 Published 2004 Journal Mol Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC443512 Disease Relevance 1.85 Pain Relevance 0
Assay for functional agouti protein
Positive_regulation (Assay) of Gene_expression (protein) of agouti
16) Confidence 0.39 Published 2004 Journal Mol Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC443512 Disease Relevance 0.59 Pain Relevance 0
Liver-specific expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice promotes liver carcinogenesis in the absence of obesity and diabetes

Background

Positive_regulation (promotes) of Gene_expression (expression) of agouti in liver associated with targeted disruption, diabetes mellitus and obesity
17) Confidence 0.39 Published 2004 Journal Mol Cancer Section Title Doc Link PMC443512 Disease Relevance 0.85 Pain Relevance 0.18
The higher prevalence of liver tumors in pseudoagouti mice than in control mice suggested that the tumor promoting effect of agouti was a direct consequence of agouti expression in the liver.
Positive_regulation (consequence) of Gene_expression (expression) of agouti in liver associated with liver cancer and cancer
18) Confidence 0.39 Published 2004 Journal Mol Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC443512 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0
Comparing Agouti expression in P. polionotus to its sister species P. maniculatus, we find that the increased expression in beach mice is a derived trait because both P. p. subgriseus and P. maniculatus have similarly low levels of Agouti expression.
Positive_regulation (Comparing) of Gene_expression (expression) of Agouti
19) Confidence 0.37 Published 2007 Journal PLoS Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC1945039 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.30
Agouti expression on the dorsum did not differ significantly between beach and mainland subspecies (p = 0.13), but Agouti was expressed at a lower level in P. maniculatus than in either polionotus subspecies (p < 0.01), consistent with P. maniculatus's darker dorsal pigmentation.
Positive_regulation (level) of in dorsum Gene_expression (expressed) of Agouti in dorsal
20) Confidence 0.37 Published 2007 Journal PLoS Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC1945039 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.61

General Comments

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