INT17881

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Context Info
Confidence 0.78
First Reported 1991
Last Reported 2011
Negated 6
Speculated 4
Reported most in Body
Documents 278
Total Number 285
Disease Relevance 221.61
Pain Relevance 48.31

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (LEP) extracellular region (LEP) lipid metabolic process (LEP)
Anatomy Link Frequency
body 15
plasma 15
adipocyte 13
fat 13
adipose tissue 12
LEP (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
cytokine 1120 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Endocannabinoid 207 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 176 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Clonidine 25 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 2115 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
spinal inflammation 81 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoarthritis 2886 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Kinase C 126 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
endometriosis 66 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 1030 99.62 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Obesity 10997 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Metabolic Syndrome 1319 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Mycobacterial Infection 1231 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 676 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Insulin Resistance 669 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Syndrome 278 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 208 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Atherosclerosis 101 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 2574 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Body Weight 631 99.92 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Leptin - a protein hormone is synthesised in the adipose tissue in humans.
Gene_expression (synthesised) of Leptin in adipose tissue associated with obesity
1) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal Med. Hypotheses Section Abstract Doc Link 19692183 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 0
Leptin is an adipocytokine that is produced mainly by adipose tissue; it is also identified in atherosclerotic lesions in human coronary atherosclerosis.
Gene_expression (produced) of Leptin in adipose tissue associated with atherosclerosis and obesity
2) Confidence 0.78 Published 2006 Journal Angiology Section Abstract Doc Link 16703186 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.21
For example, angiotensin II has recently been found to stimulate leptin production in human adipose tissue (Skurk et al 2005), possibly by means of activation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor subtype.
Gene_expression (production) of leptin in adipose tissue associated with obesity
3) Confidence 0.77 Published 2006 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1993994 Disease Relevance 1.26 Pain Relevance 0.03
Leptin is a 167 amino acid hormone discovered in 1994 that is almost exclusively produced by adipose tissue and possibly secreted by a constitutive mechanism.
Gene_expression (produced) of Leptin in adipose tissue associated with obesity
4) Confidence 0.77 Published 2006 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1993994 Disease Relevance 1.69 Pain Relevance 0.04
While obese people produce much higher levels of leptin than thin and normal-weight individuals, they are somehow resistant to its effects [8,12].
Gene_expression (produce) of leptin associated with obesity
5) Confidence 0.74 Published 2010 Journal Lipids Health Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC2836327 Disease Relevance 1.04 Pain Relevance 0.07
On the other hand, Van Crevel et al. [24] have shown that both plasma leptin and ex vivo IFN-gamma production were low and increased upon successful antituberculous treatment.
Gene_expression (production) of leptin in plasma
6) Confidence 0.74 Published 2007 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC1804295 Disease Relevance 0.79 Pain Relevance 0.03
Several studies have shown that the systemic administration of recombinant TNF increases leptin gene expression from fat tissue [17, 18].
Gene_expression (expression) of leptin gene in fat
7) Confidence 0.74 Published 2007 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC1804295 Disease Relevance 1.93 Pain Relevance 0.35
The cytokine-induced increase in leptin expression or its serum levels and reduction in
Gene_expression (expression) of leptin associated with cytokine
8) Confidence 0.74 Published 2007 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC1804295 Disease Relevance 1.92 Pain Relevance 0.47
and cytokines such as TNF and IL-1 increase leptin expression dose
Gene_expression (expression) of leptin associated with cytokine
9) Confidence 0.74 Published 2007 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC1804295 Disease Relevance 1.85 Pain Relevance 0.44
The leptin-induced TIMP-2 expression may delay cartilage destruction in non-obese OA patients while the adipokine may enhance cartilage damage in obese OA patients.
Gene_expression (expression) of leptin-induced in cartilage associated with obesity and osteoarthritis
10) Confidence 0.73 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2911905 Disease Relevance 1.24 Pain Relevance 0.26
By contrast, leptin up-regulated gene expression in a dose-dependent manner in chondrocytes collected from obese OA patients as cells required an elevated level of leptin to be responsive (Figure 2).
Gene_expression (expression) of leptin in chondrocytes associated with obesity and osteoarthritis
11) Confidence 0.73 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2911905 Disease Relevance 1.27 Pain Relevance 0.13
The expression of leptin and its functional receptor is strongly up-regulated in human OA cartilage and is related to the grade of cartilage destruction [9,10].
Gene_expression (expression) of leptin in cartilage associated with osteoarthritis
12) Confidence 0.73 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2911905 Disease Relevance 1.19 Pain Relevance 0.38
Articular cartilage has been reported to produce leptin [8, 10] and express functional leptin receptor Ob-R [11], and the expression of these two is further increased in advanced OA correlating with BMI of the patients [9].
Gene_expression (express) of leptin in Articular cartilage associated with obesity and osteoarthritis
13) Confidence 0.72 Published 2009 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2726438 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0.40
More recent findings on the ubiquitous expression of leptin receptors in almost all tissues and on its cellular effects have revealed that leptin is also involved in the regulation of a variety of biological functions related to immune responses and inflammatory diseases, and to cardiovascular and respiratory pathophysiology [2–5].
Gene_expression (expression) of leptin in respiratory associated with inflammation and disease
14) Confidence 0.72 Published 2009 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2726438 Disease Relevance 1.24 Pain Relevance 0.31
When biopsies of human myometrium from obese women were exposed to leptin, it showed a cumulative inhibitory effect on spontaneous as well as induced contractions.
Gene_expression (exposed) of leptin in myometrium associated with obesity
15) Confidence 0.68 Published 2010 Journal Med. Hypotheses Section Abstract Doc Link 19692183 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.06
This may seem in contrast with previous studies that have generally shown that leptin levels decrease significantly with CPAP [36-41,48], but these changes were generally small in absolute amount and not very different from those determined here.
Gene_expression (levels) of leptin
16) Confidence 0.67 Published 2008 Journal BMC Pulm Med Section Body Doc Link PMC2567288 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0
The aims of the present study were to investigate serum leptin concentrations in patients with ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) and with chronic stable angina pectoris (CSAP) and to evaluate the possible correlations of leptin to other atherosclerotic risk factors; including serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), serum homocysteine, and fibrinogen concentrations.
Gene_expression (concentrations) of leptin associated with stable angina pectoris, angina, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction
17) Confidence 0.67 Published 2006 Journal Angiology Section Abstract Doc Link 16703186 Disease Relevance 1.22 Pain Relevance 0.51
Concept of selective leptin resistance
Gene_expression (resistance) of leptin
18) Confidence 0.67 Published 2006 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1993994 Disease Relevance 1.28 Pain Relevance 0
Although systemic administration of leptin stimulates sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney (Haynes, Morgan, et al 1997), if infused for short period of time, leptin produces increased sodium excretion and urine output with no changes in blood pressure in lean animals (Jackson and Li 1997; Villarreal et al 1998; Beltowski, Wojcicka, Gorny, et al 2002; Beltowski, Jochem, et al 2004).
Neg (no) Gene_expression (produces) of leptin in kidney associated with cv unclassified under development
19) Confidence 0.67 Published 2006 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1993994 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0.03
In contrast to these findings, Sonmez et al (2001) in an earlier study, found no clear effect of the ARB Losartan on leptin levels in young hypertensive individuals despite its hypotensive action.
Gene_expression (levels) of leptin associated with hypotension and hypertension
20) Confidence 0.67 Published 2006 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1993994 Disease Relevance 1.00 Pain Relevance 0.22

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