INT179688

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Context Info
Confidence 0.35
First Reported 2004
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 13
Total Number 13
Disease Relevance 16.06
Pain Relevance 0.97

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
alveolar macrophages 2
Lung 2
respiratory 2
COPD (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
corticosteroid 55 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 252 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 64 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
ischemia 27 97.00 Very High Very High Very High
anakinra 2 89.08 High High
rheumatoid arthritis 8 82.84 Quite High
antagonist 28 79.92 Quite High
cytokine 59 79.76 Quite High
Inflammatory marker 4 46.80 Quite Low
fibrosis 13 36.16 Quite Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pulmonary Disease 1081 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 63 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Heart Failure 62 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Obstructive Sleep Apnea 59 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Chronic Renal Failure 55 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cough 28 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 63 99.22 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 290 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Syndrome 24 98.80 Very High Very High Very High
Nicotine Addiction 380 98.76 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Reversal of epithelial remodelling may therefore contribute to reduced progression of COPD attributable to restored mucociliary clearance, resulting in reduced respiratory colonization [38] and exacerbations, and less small airways obstruction.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of Gene_expression (progression) of COPD in respiratory associated with pulmonary disease
1) Confidence 0.35 Published 2007 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2214729 Disease Relevance 1.68 Pain Relevance 0.11
Additionally, patients should receive dietary counseling to ensure that adequate amount of calories are consumed each day and the diet is enriched for fruits, vegetables and fish, which may decrease COPD progression (Varraso et al 2007).


Negative_regulation (decrease) of Gene_expression (progression) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease
2) Confidence 0.34 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2650603 Disease Relevance 0.93 Pain Relevance 0
OSAS, COPD, and cardiovascular risk
Negative_regulation (risk) of Gene_expression (OSAS) of COPD associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea
3) Confidence 0.31 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2650593 Disease Relevance 1.62 Pain Relevance 0.05
5.1 How do self-perceived symptoms, care needs, caregiver burden, preferences with regard to life-sustaining treatments, end-of-life care communication and management of patients with severe to very severe COPD, CHF and CRF change over time according to the patients and their closest relatives?
Negative_regulation (severe) of Gene_expression (change) of COPD associated with chronic renal failure, pulmonary disease and heart failure
4) Confidence 0.28 Published 2008 Journal BMC Palliat Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2391145 Disease Relevance 1.67 Pain Relevance 0
(Seemungal et al 1998) COPD exacerbations are defined as a change in the patient’s chronic respiratory symptoms sufficient to warrant a change in management (Celli et al 2004; Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2005)
Negative_regulation (defined) of Gene_expression (exacerbations) of COPD in Lung associated with pulmonary disease
5) Confidence 0.25 Published 2007 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2695191 Disease Relevance 1.82 Pain Relevance 0.05
Glucocorticoids do not reduce airway inflammation in COPD (Barnes 2000) and various long-term studies showed that glucocorticoids are not able to reduce the progression of COPD (Pauwels et al 1999; Vestbo et al 1999; Burge et al 2000; LHSRG 2000).
Negative_regulation (reduce) of Gene_expression (progression) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease and inflammation
6) Confidence 0.20 Published 2006 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2707800 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0.05
Definition and severity of COPD
Negative_regulation (severity) of Gene_expression (Definition) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease
7) Confidence 0.19 Published 2005 Journal Health Qual Life Outcomes Section Body Doc Link PMC1215504 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0
But to the extent that otherwise clinically silent cardiac events may be “missed”, this finding carries implications for management of between 4% and 15% of the over 700,000 patients each year who are hospitalized with COPD exacerbation, especially since beta-agonist aerosols may promote or exacerbate cardiac ischemia.6,7
Negative_regulation (hospitalized) of Gene_expression (exacerbation) of COPD associated with coronary artery disease, pulmonary disease, ischemia and agonist
8) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2981154 Disease Relevance 1.60 Pain Relevance 0.33
Animal models should not only assess histopathological features but also attempt to focus on functional features of human COPD such as airflow limitation, mucus hypersecretion, chronic cough and exacerbations, and also on pharmacological features such as corticosteroid resistance or diminished ?
Negative_regulation (features) of Gene_expression (features) of COPD associated with corticosteroid, pulmonary disease and cough
9) Confidence 0.16 Published 2004 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC533858 Disease Relevance 0.88 Pain Relevance 0.05
Animal models should not only assess histopathological features but also attempt to focus on functional features of human COPD such as airflow limitation, mucus hypersecretion, chronic cough and exacerbations, and also on pharmacological features such as corticosteroid resistance or diminished ?
Negative_regulation (limitation) of Gene_expression (features) of COPD associated with corticosteroid, pulmonary disease and cough
10) Confidence 0.16 Published 2004 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC533858 Disease Relevance 0.86 Pain Relevance 0.05
This is consistent with reports that have shown decreased HO-1 expression in alveolar macrophages of severe COPD patients relative to those of smokers without lung function impairment (Maestrelli 2003).
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Gene_expression (expression) of COPD in alveolar macrophages associated with nicotine addiction and pulmonary disease
11) Confidence 0.10 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2629979 Disease Relevance 1.35 Pain Relevance 0
These preliminary observations indicate that stress protein responses such as HO-1 may be impaired during COPD progression, which may contribute to the etiology of this disease.
Negative_regulation (impaired) of Gene_expression (progression) of COPD associated with stress, pulmonary disease and disease
12) Confidence 0.10 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2629979 Disease Relevance 1.26 Pain Relevance 0
However, despite the apparently disappointing results of these early clinical studies, the various approaches aimed at inhibiting IL-1 functions and/or synthesis might be potentially beneficial in COPD, also because of the consequent reduction of TNF-?
Negative_regulation (reduction) of Gene_expression (beneficial) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease
13) Confidence 0.05 Published 2006 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2707155 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0.27

General Comments

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