INT181642

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Context Info
Confidence 0.01
First Reported 2004
Last Reported 2008
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 2
Total Number 31
Disease Relevance 28.07
Pain Relevance 4.01

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

nucleus (Narf)
Anatomy Link Frequency
eye 2
blood 1
superior 1
ciliary body 1
Narf (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Clonidine 120 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 185 98.24 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 331 96.80 Very High Very High Very High
headache 63 93.24 High High
Glutamate receptor 31 92.56 High High
metalloproteinase 30 91.96 High High
Glutamate 240 88.00 High High
Calcium channel 31 87.16 High High
Onset of action 90 86.64 High High
Spinal cord 1 86.40 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Ocular Hypertension 2701 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glaucoma 2402 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Open-angle Glaucoma 90 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Hypersensitivity 150 99.26 Very High Very High Very High
Hypotension 270 98.88 Very High Very High Very High
Optic Disorders 30 96.96 Very High Very High Very High
Low Tension Glaucoma 90 95.12 Very High Very High Very High
Conjunctivitis 90 94.48 High High
Ganglion Cysts 180 93.48 High High
Headache 67 93.24 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Topical dipivefrin 0.1% is useful for lowering IOP in patients intolerant to epinephrine.[17] The most frequent side effects reported with dipivefrin include burning, stinging, follicular conjunctivitis, blurry vision, headache, and allergic reaction.


Negative_regulation (lowering) of IOP associated with conjunctivitis, hypersensitivity, headache and ocular hypertension
1) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 1.09 Pain Relevance 0.53
It reduces IOP by 20-35%, on an average.[2829] It is very effective during waking hours and causes less reduction in IOP in night.[30] Early trials demonstrated that it is more effective in lowering IOP, as compared to epinephrine and pilocarpine.[31]
Negative_regulation (reduces) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
2) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 1.48 Pain Relevance 0.11
In a six-month multicentric, randomized controlled trial, bimatoprost proved to be statistically and clinically superior to timolol in lowering IOP in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
Negative_regulation (lowering) of IOP in superior associated with glaucoma and ocular hypertension
3) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0
An IOP reduction of approximately 19-23% is observed.[38]
Negative_regulation (reduction) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
4) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 1.16 Pain Relevance 0.07
The range of reported additional reductions in IOP, compared to a latanoprost monotherapy baseline are as follows: latanoprost-timolol (13-37%), latanoprostpilocarpine 2% (7-14%), latanoprost and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (15-24.1%), and latanoprost and dipivefrin (15-28%).[86]
Negative_regulation (reductions) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
5) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 0.67 Pain Relevance 0.03
When a single therapy is not sufficient to lower the IOP, a combination therapy is indicated.
Negative_regulation (lower) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
6) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 1.28 Pain Relevance 0.13
In some studies, latanoprost was found to be equally significantly more effective in reducing IOP than dorzolamide and brimonidine.[58] In a comparative study between three PGAs latanoprost, bimatoprost, and travaprost, it was found that all the three drugs were comparable in their ability to reduce IOP in OAG and OH patients.
Negative_regulation (reducing) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
7) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0.03
In addition to memantine, a number of other potential non-IOP lowering direct acting neuroprotective agents are shown to have an application in glaucoma.
Negative_regulation (number) of IOP associated with glaucoma and ocular hypertension
8) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 0.91 Pain Relevance 0.49
It lowers IOP by decreasing aqueous humor formation.
Negative_regulation (lowers) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
9) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 1.43 Pain Relevance 0.11
It reduces IOP by 20-35%, on an average.[2829] It is very effective during waking hours and causes less reduction in IOP in night.[30] Early trials demonstrated that it is more effective in lowering IOP, as compared to epinephrine and pilocarpine.[31]
Negative_regulation (reduction) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
10) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 1.40 Pain Relevance 0.22
The addition of latanoprost to timolol treatment produces an additional IOP reduction of 13-37%, depending upon the frequency of the application and the baseline IOP.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
11) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0
Travaprost 0.004% was also shown to be an effective adjunctive agent, offering an additional 5 - 7 mmHg IOP reduction in patients inadequately controlled on timolol 0.5%.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
12) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 0.76 Pain Relevance 0.08
The mean IOP reduction was 6.7± 3.4 mmHg for latanoprost and 4.9±2.9 mmHg for timolol, after 6 months' treatment.[54–56]
Negative_regulation (reduction) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
13) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 0.65 Pain Relevance 0.07
It produces 20-24% reduction in IOP.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
14) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 1.06 Pain Relevance 0.48
Given topically twice daily in controlled domestic clinical trials, carteolol produced a median percent reduction of IOP 22 to 25%.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
15) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 0.59 Pain Relevance 0.26
Latanoprost reduces IOP by increasing the aqueous outflow from the eye, through the uveoscleral pathway.[51] How this occurs is not known, but it is thought that they bind to the receptors of the ciliary body and upregulate metalloproteinases.
Negative_regulation (reduces) of IOP in ciliary body associated with metalloproteinase and ocular hypertension
16) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.13
When a single therapy is not sufficient to lower the IOP, a combined treatment is indicated.
Negative_regulation (lower) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
17) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0
In a double-masked, placebo-controlled trial, brimonidine was effective in reducing the IOP in patients with elevated IOP.
Negative_regulation (reducing) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
18) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 1.09 Pain Relevance 0.11
The combination therapy is also dependent upon the mechanism through which the components act to reduce IOP.
Negative_regulation (reduce) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
19) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0
In clinical studies, travaprost once daily produced reductions in IOP of between 7-8 mmHg, from a mean baseline IOP of 25-27 mmHg, an effect similar to that noted in the case of bimatoprost or latanoprost.[79] In controlled clinical trials, travaprost 0.004% once daily, used as monotherapy, produced greater IOP reduction than timolol 0.5% b.i.d and equal or greater reduction than latanoprost 0.005%.[80]
Negative_regulation (reductions) of IOP associated with ocular hypertension
20) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2792620 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.10

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