INT184206

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Context Info
Confidence 0.66
First Reported 2005
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 22
Total Number 22
Disease Relevance 7.86
Pain Relevance 1.46

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (HRAS) signal transduction (HRAS) Golgi apparatus (HRAS)
plasma membrane (HRAS) nucleus (HRAS) GTPase activity (HRAS)
Anatomy Link Frequency
lymph nodes 2
liver 2
cartilage 2
kidney 2
extracellular matrix 2
HRAS (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
cytokine 117 96.12 Very High Very High Very High
imagery 21 93.20 High High
fibrosis 104 90.80 High High
Inflammation 156 88.64 High High
Osteoarthritis 167 88.04 High High
Analgesic 5 87.52 High High
Pain 74 84.32 Quite High
rheumatoid arthritis 14 83.64 Quite High
cINOD 33 62.40 Quite High
corticosteroid 31 50.00 Quite Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cirrhosis 67 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Osteolysis 8 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 122 98.50 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoarthritis 146 97.96 Very High Very High Very High
Breast Cancer 24 96.00 Very High Very High Very High
Apoptosis 30 93.72 High High
Disease 70 93.68 High High
Death 26 92.48 High High
Influenza Virus Infection 213 92.12 High High
Hepatitis C Virus Infection 34 89.36 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
A retrieval analysis of HA-coated cups has shown degradation of HA in all retrieved cups, and the authors concluded that “[…] poor replacement of HA by bone may interfere with long-term fixation” (Rokkum et al. 2003).
Protein_catabolism (degradation) of HA
1) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal Acta Orthopaedica Section Body Doc Link PMC2856204 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
In addition Ostenil Plus contains 10 mg Mannitol, an antioxidant which protects hyaluronic acid molecules against free radicals and inhibits the degradation of HA [25].
Protein_catabolism (degradation) of HA
2) Confidence 0.06 Published 2010 Journal BMC Musculoskelet Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC2998460 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.20
HA is synthesized as large disaccharide chains (>106 Da), which is progressively degraded in the extracellular matrix [9].
Protein_catabolism (degraded) of HA in extracellular matrix
3) Confidence 0.04 Published 2009 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2660376 Disease Relevance 0.97 Pain Relevance 0.05
On the other hand, because HA degradation products may interact with various cells and initiate a program of gene expression leading to cell proliferation, migration, or activation [3,4,7], these products exhibit biological functions that are quite distinct from those of the native, high-molecular-weight polymer.
Protein_catabolism (degradation) of HA
4) Confidence 0.02 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1175024 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.03
The presence of bands without staining on the blue background of undegraded HA indicates hyaluronidase activity.
Protein_catabolism (undegraded) of HA in bands
5) Confidence 0.02 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1175024 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Tumor-derived soluble factors shift the balance between bone formation and bone degradation towards osteolysis [2], [4], [7], [11], [16], [31], [36], and our results indicate that HA is strongly implicated in this process.
Protein_catabolism (degradation) of HA associated with cancer and osteolysis
6) Confidence 0.02 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2809751 Disease Relevance 1.20 Pain Relevance 0.07
Extrapolating these figures and using them as a rough guide to the kinetics of the human osteoarthritic joint, the mechanism of action of viscosupplementation must be more than the simple replenishment of degraded HA.
Protein_catabolism (degraded) of HA in joint associated with osteoarthritis
7) Confidence 0.02 Published 2009 Journal Journal of pain research Section Body Doc Link PMC3004631 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.20
As there is evidence that after a first degradation within the tissues of origin, HA is drained by the lymphatic system before being further degraded in lymph nodes, liver, and kidney [39], PH-20 is likely to contribute to the pool of HA molecules that are easily released from the tissue into the lymphatic system.
Protein_catabolism (degraded) of HA in kidney
8) Confidence 0.02 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1175024 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Although this intracellular pathway does not explain the loss of HA molecules from cartilage matrix, the intracellular and the extracellular PH-20 pathways can be complementary, since, as stated above, the degradation of high-molecular-weight HA molecules facilitates their endocytosis [40,41].
Protein_catabolism (degradation) of HA in cartilage
9) Confidence 0.02 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1175024 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.24
On the other hand, there is evidence that proinflammatory cytokines up-regulate the levels of chondrocyte lysosomal hyaluronidases [22] as well as the expression of the CD44/HA receptor by chondrocytes [41], thereby suggesting that, within articular cartilage, HA catabolism also involves endocytosis and intracellular degradation.
Protein_catabolism (degradation) of HA in chondrocyte associated with cytokine
10) Confidence 0.02 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1175024 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.16
Because the loss of HA from cartilage explants occurs in spite of an up-regulation in HA biosynthesis [52,53], a likely explanation is that HA strands are being degraded at an accelerated rate by a hyaluronidase active at near neutral pH.
Protein_catabolism (degraded) of HA in cartilage
11) Confidence 0.02 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1175024 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.13
Since PH-20 degrades not only HA but also the chondroitin sulfate chains of the various proteoglycan molecules present in the extracellular matrix, the enzyme is likely to facilitate HA internalization, a process that does not necessarily lead to the degradation of the glycosaminoglycan to small oligosaccharides within lysosomes.
Protein_catabolism (degrades) of HA in extracellular matrix
12) Confidence 0.02 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1175024 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
This observation and the presence of saccharolactone in the incubation buffer strongly suggest that HA degradation reflects the hyaluronidase activity alone rather than the combined action of hyaluronidase and exoglycosidases.


Protein_catabolism (degradation) of HA
13) Confidence 0.02 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1175024 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
As there is evidence that after a first degradation within the tissues of origin, HA is drained by the lymphatic system before being further degraded in lymph nodes, liver, and kidney [39], PH-20 is likely to contribute to the pool of HA molecules that are easily released from the tissue into the lymphatic system.
Protein_catabolism (degradation) of HA in kidney
14) Confidence 0.02 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1175024 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Cleavage of HA is essential for fusion and virus infectivity.
Protein_catabolism (Cleavage) of HA in Cleavage
15) Confidence 0.02 Published 2007 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2692119 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0
HA is synthesised as a single peptide but cleaved into HA1 and HA2 by specific host protease.
Protein_catabolism (cleaved) of HA
16) Confidence 0.01 Published 2009 Journal Virol J Section Body Doc Link PMC2666653 Disease Relevance 0.78 Pain Relevance 0
The poorly crystallized HA coatings showed the most degradation and least bone apposition.
Protein_catabolism (degradation) of HA
17) Confidence 0.01 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Molecular Sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2871132 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0
In the liver, HA is mostly synthesized by hepatic stellate cells and degraded by sinusoidal endothelial cells [7].
Protein_catabolism (degraded) of HA in endothelial cells associated with cirrhosis
18) Confidence 0.01 Published 2010 Journal BMC Infect Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC2936897 Disease Relevance 1.89 Pain Relevance 0.40
As there is evidence that after a first degradation within the tissues of origin, HA is drained by the lymphatic system before being further degraded in lymph nodes, liver, and kidney [39], PH-20 is likely to contribute to the pool of HA molecules that are easily released from the tissue into the lymphatic system.
Protein_catabolism (degradation) of HA in liver
19) Confidence 0.01 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1175024 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
As there is evidence that after a first degradation within the tissues of origin, HA is drained by the lymphatic system before being further degraded in lymph nodes, liver, and kidney [39], PH-20 is likely to contribute to the pool of HA molecules that are easily released from the tissue into the lymphatic system.
Protein_catabolism (degradation) of HA in lymph nodes
20) Confidence 0.01 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1175024 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0

General Comments

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