INT18543

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Context Info
Confidence 0.37
First Reported 1990
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 20
Total Number 20
Disease Relevance 8.40
Pain Relevance 5.25

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Anatomy Link Frequency
tail 1
ECT (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Antinociceptive 3 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
intrathecal 4 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
ketamine 5 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
depression 297 99.62 Very High Very High Very High
monoamine 6 99.16 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 3 98.68 Very High Very High Very High
antidepressant 157 98.36 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 7 98.36 Very High Very High Very High
antinociception 4 97.40 Very High Very High Very High
tricyclic antidepressant 26 96.64 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Amnesia 22 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 369 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperalgesia 5 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 218 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Schizophrenia 8 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cognitive Disorder 136 98.44 Very High Very High Very High
Catatonia 4 98.40 Very High Very High Very High
Manic Depressive Disorder 2 97.80 Very High Very High Very High
Headache 5 95.84 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 17 91.84 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The anti-thermal hyperalgesic effect of repeated ECT was reversed by the previous administration of nifedipine (L-type Ca2+ channel blocker).
Negative_regulation (reversed) of ECT associated with hyperalgesia
1) Confidence 0.37 Published 1998 Journal Anesth. Analg. Section Abstract Doc Link 9495420 Disease Relevance 1.24 Pain Relevance 1.16
RESULTS: During M-ECT, the mean duration of yearly hospitalizations was decreased by 80% and the mean duration of each hospitalization by 40% with a better ability to take part in activities, sometimes even to return home or go back to work.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of ECT
2) Confidence 0.37 Published 2008 Journal Encephale Section Body Doc Link 19068343 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
All patients who received both anesthetics for ECT during 2 different episodes had less memory loss during ECT with ketamine than with etomidate.
Negative_regulation (loss) of ECT associated with ketamine and amnesia
3) Confidence 0.37 Published 2006 Journal J ECT Section Abstract Doc Link 16801824 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.61
BACKGROUND: A very troubling side effect of ECT is severe post-ECT headaches.
Negative_regulation (effect) of ECT
4) Confidence 0.37 Published 2008 Journal J ECT Section Body Doc Link 18580561 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0
CONCLUSIONS: The practice of ECT in Asia may seem suboptimal: schizophrenia, not depression, is the most common indication; most institutions offer sine-wave ECT; unmodified ECT is commonly administered; bilateral electrode placement is invariable in most institutions; electroencephalographic monitoring is uncommon; continuation ECT is infrequent; and no formal training in ECT is available.
Negative_regulation (administered) of ECT
5) Confidence 0.36 Published 2010 Journal J ECT Section Body Doc Link 19444137 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
More care is required when ECT is administered in the setting of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), especially the older irreversible varieties and in patients recently placed on MAOI therapy.
Negative_regulation (administered) of ECT associated with monoamine
6) Confidence 0.36 Published 2002 Journal CNS Drugs Section Abstract Doc Link 11945107 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.37
Schedule of administration (number of ECT per week and total number of treatments in the course) is one of a number of factors that may significantly influence the degree of cognitive impairment induced by ECT.
Negative_regulation (number) of ECT associated with cognitive disorder
7) Confidence 0.35 Published 2000 Journal J ECT Section Abstract Doc Link 10868320 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.17
A further possible explanation for the reduction in ECT use may relate to the concern over adverse effects of the procedure.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of ECT
8) Confidence 0.35 Published 2004 Journal Ann Gen Hosp Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC514898 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0.26
Some of these side effects are substantially reduced by advances in safety and the introduction of controlled-current ECT machines.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of ECT
9) Confidence 0.34 Published 2004 Journal Ann Gen Hosp Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC514898 Disease Relevance 0.78 Pain Relevance 0.22
MEASUREMENTS: BIS immediately before the start of the ECT and the duration of the EEG seizure were recorded, as well as the time period between loss of consciousness and ECT administration.
Negative_regulation (loss) of ECT
10) Confidence 0.34 Published 2003 Journal J Clin Anesth Section Body Doc Link 12657408 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
When ECT is provided to adolescents, the potential impact of such cognitive changes should be discussed with the patients and their parents or guardians in terms of implications for not only the patientÂ’s emotional functioning but cognitive functioning as well, particularly upon his or her academic performance.
Negative_regulation (provided) of ECT associated with cognitive disorder
11) Confidence 0.34 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2526376 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0.09
With respect to visual memory, the percent retained for geometric designs was also significantly decreased following ECT.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of ECT
12) Confidence 0.33 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2526376 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.04
Squire (1977) investigated the effects of ECT on cognitive functioning and found that bilateral ECT produced greater anterograde memory loss than right unilateral ECT on both recall and recognition memory tests.
Negative_regulation (loss) of ECT associated with cognitive disorder and amnesia
13) Confidence 0.33 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2526376 Disease Relevance 0.59 Pain Relevance 0
Similarly, delayed recall and percent retained for paragraph length were significantly decreased after ECT (p-values; or effect size).
Negative_regulation (decreased) of ECT
14) Confidence 0.33 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2526376 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.06
The ECT antinociceptive effects of propofol at tail but not neck sites were suppressed by intrathecal injection of the GABA(A) antagonists bicuculline and SR-95531 and the delta opioid antagonist naltrindole.
Negative_regulation (suppressed) of ECT in tail associated with gaba, antagonist, opioid, antinociceptive and intrathecal
15) Confidence 0.19 Published 1997 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 9316824 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 1.09
In another study conducted on 25 depressed PD patients, depression was significantly reduced following ECT (Moellentine et al 1998).
Negative_regulation (reduced) of ECT associated with depression and disease
16) Confidence 0.16 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2515908 Disease Relevance 1.30 Pain Relevance 0.49
BDI was not significantly different based on the number of failed trials of medication (p = 0.10), gender (p = 0.51), bipolar diagnosis (p = 0.82), hand dominance (p = 0.74), or failure of previous ECT (p = 0.45).
Negative_regulation (failure) of ECT
17) Confidence 0.16 Published 2006 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2671728 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The significance of the latter to the overall effectiveness of ECT is not known.
Negative_regulation (effectiveness) of ECT
18) Confidence 0.13 Published 1990 Journal Anesth. Analg. Section Abstract Doc Link 1975995 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.07
Greenhalgh et al62 reviewed the evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness of ECT for depressive illness, schizophrenia, catatonia, and mania.
Negative_regulation (effectiveness) of ECT associated with manic depressive disorder, depression, catatonia and schizophrenia
19) Confidence 0.05 Published 2009 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2781064 Disease Relevance 0.78 Pain Relevance 0.46
ECT was introduced in the late 1930s and was very rapidly accepted because of its effectiveness in severe psychiatric disorders.
Negative_regulation (accepted) of ECT
20) Confidence 0.04 Published 2010 Journal Acta Neurochir (Wien) Section Body Doc Link PMC2844529 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.16

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