INT185896

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Context Info
Confidence 0.29
First Reported 2005
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 11
Total Number 15
Disease Relevance 9.45
Pain Relevance 0.28

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
lens capsules 2
kidney 1
AREG (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Inflammation 206 96.92 Very High Very High Very High
COX-2 inhibitor 57 88.08 High High
antagonist 21 87.16 High High
diclofenac 11 51.48 Quite High
cINOD 28 48.20 Quite Low
agonist 81 42.24 Quite Low
palliative 2 38.72 Quite Low
metalloproteinase 7 25.52 Quite Low
imagery 6 9.72 Low Low
cytokine 25 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Apoptosis 250 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 433 99.62 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperplasia 17 98.88 Very High Very High Very High
Colitis 201 98.40 Very High Very High Very High
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 6 98.24 Very High Very High Very High
Cleidocranial Dysplasia 36 97.48 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 229 96.92 Very High Very High Very High
Capsule Opacification 225 96.48 Very High Very High Very High
Fever 42 93.68 High High
Death 55 92.92 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
This is particularly interesting in light of very recent evidences generated from a microarray study showing that expression of EGFR ligands epiregulin and amphiregulin may predict cetuximab benefit [15].
Gene_expression (expression) of amphiregulin
1) Confidence 0.29 Published 2008 Journal BMC Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC2432064 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0
Amphiregulin is activated by metalloproteases and can be induced by cAMP activation, and increased levels of amphiregulin expression and release in airways, after activation by human airway trypsin-like protease through PAR2 receptor activation, result in mucus hypersecretion in chronic obstructive airway disease [46].
Gene_expression (expression) of amphiregulin associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
2) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2970545 Disease Relevance 0.55 Pain Relevance 0
Our array data has demonstrated that amphiregulin expression is also substantially induced in kidney cells by PAR2 activation and this may be important in proliferation of kidney cells.


Gene_expression (expression) of amphiregulin in kidney
3) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2970545 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0
AREG

The product of this gene, amphiregulin, is a member of the epidermal growth factor family [46].

Gene_expression (product) of amphiregulin
4) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2970545 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0
In this cell line, the expression of amphiregulin is correlated to the expression of COX-2.


Gene_expression (expression) of amphiregulin
5) Confidence 0.19 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Cell Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2841246 Disease Relevance 1.39 Pain Relevance 0.04
We used average cluster linkage, uncentered [31] based on Euclidean distance and removed all genes that were turned on in tumors but that were not expressed in normal tissue (NCK5AI, CDK5 activator, CDC25A, ERK4, K2P, COL11A1, OBCAM, AMPHIREGULIN, BCGF1 and BMP8).
Neg (not) Gene_expression (expressed) of AMPHIREGULIN associated with cancer
6) Confidence 0.17 Published 2005 Journal BMC Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC1198222 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0
EGF and transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha appear to be key ligands, but others, like epiregulin, betacellulin, epigen, and amphiregulin, have been shown to be relevant predictors of response and resistance.29,30 A series of downstream signals lead to tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, and inhibition of apoptosis by the Ras-Raf-Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3)-Akt pathways.31,32 Interaction between EGFR expression and STAT 3 (signal transducers and activators of transcription 3) has also been shown to be important in gene transcription.33–35
Gene_expression (others) of amphiregulin associated with cancer and apoptosis
7) Confidence 0.11 Published 2009 Journal OncoTargets and therapy Section Body Doc Link PMC2886327 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0
M AR-12, which was synthesized in-house as described previously [26].
Gene_expression (synthesized) of AR-12
8) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2994344 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
AR-12 treated ex vivo lens capsules
Gene_expression (treated) of AR-12 in lens capsules
9) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2994344 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0
When UV-exposed LEC were allowed to recover in the presence of either 5.0 or 10.0 µM AR-12, there was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in telomerase activity compared to the cells that were irradiated and received 0.0 µM AR-12 (Figure 2C).


Gene_expression (received) of AR-12
10) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2994344 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
There was a positive correlation between concentration of AR-12 used and LEC apoptosis, as determined by decreased cell viability and increased caspase-3 expression in non-confluent LEC.
Gene_expression (apoptosis) of AR-12 associated with apoptosis
11) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2994344 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0.07
Caspase-3 immunoreactivity was variable, but increased numbers of positive cells were seen in lens capsules treated with AR-12 concentrations at 5 ?
Gene_expression (concentrations) of AR-12 in lens capsules
12) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2994344 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0
Mucosal Cox-2 and amphiregulin (AR) expression, prostanoid synthesis, and EGFR activation were analyzed.


Gene_expression (expression) of AR
13) Confidence 0.04 Published 2010 Journal BMC Gastroenterol Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2912804 Disease Relevance 1.28 Pain Relevance 0.05
Lastly, PGE 2 treatment increased mucosal expression of AR and Cox-2, thus inducing EGFR activation and forming a positive feedback mechanism to amplify mucosal Cox-2.


Gene_expression (expression) of AR
14) Confidence 0.04 Published 2010 Journal BMC Gastroenterol Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2912804 Disease Relevance 1.00 Pain Relevance 0.03
Mice treated with PGE 2 had increased expression of Cox-2 and the EGFR-ligand, AR, leading to increased phosphorylation and activation of EGFR, indicating positive feedback.
Gene_expression (expression) of AR
15) Confidence 0.04 Published 2010 Journal BMC Gastroenterol Section Body Doc Link PMC2912804 Disease Relevance 1.15 Pain Relevance 0.08

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