INT186142

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Context Info
Confidence 0.66
First Reported 2005
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 45
Total Number 69
Disease Relevance 34.04
Pain Relevance 6.94

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ghrh) extracellular region (Ghrh)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 22
pituitary 6
plasma 4
arcuate nucleus 4
pancreatic islet 2
Ghrh (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Somatostatin 817 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 150 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 418 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
GABAergic 225 98.80 Very High Very High Very High
Thoracotomy 62 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 78 95.12 Very High Very High Very High
fibrosis 3 94.84 High High
agonist 200 94.68 High High
antidepressant 2 94.60 High High
Action potential 550 92.44 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Syndrome 433 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 1474 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Carcinoid 620 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Lung Cancer 217 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Pituitary Cancer 194 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Adenoma 465 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglioneuroma 62 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Acromegaly 558 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Islet Cell Adenoma 62 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Metastasis 465 99.20 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Particularly interesting was the description of a single acromegalic patient whose large pituitary adenoma co-expressed GHRH-receptor and GHRH together with a 100-fold increased plasma GHRH concentration.
Gene_expression (expressed) of GHRH in plasma associated with pituitary cancer
1) Confidence 0.66 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 0.96 Pain Relevance 0.06
It has been found that some GHRH-producing carcinoids also express GHRH-receptors, which may stimulate tumor growth via an autocrine mechanism [22].
Gene_expression (producing) of GHRH associated with carcinoid and cancer
2) Confidence 0.66 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 0.90 Pain Relevance 0.03
GHRH and its receptor are also expressed in cancers of the breast, ovary, and endometrium and small-cell lung cancer, and may function as a paracrine/autocrine growth factor in regulating local IGF-I and/or IGF-II secretion.
Gene_expression (expressed) of GHRH in endometrium associated with lung cancer and cancer
3) Confidence 0.66 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0.07
GH secretory characteristics of two patients were investigated before removal of the GHRH source.
Gene_expression (source) of GHRH
4) Confidence 0.66 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 1.11 Pain Relevance 0.11
Particularly interesting was the description of a single acromegalic patient whose large pituitary adenoma co-expressed GHRH-receptor and GHRH together with a 100-fold increased plasma GHRH concentration.
Gene_expression (expressed) of GHRH in plasma associated with pituitary cancer
5) Confidence 0.66 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 0.95 Pain Relevance 0.05
After surgery, hyperprolactinemia normalized, but GH still increased after TRH administration, suggesting that GHRH was still being produced by tumor remnants or metastases in two patients (nos. 2 and 3).
Gene_expression (produced) of GHRH associated with galactorrhea, cancer and metastasis
6) Confidence 0.66 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 1.40 Pain Relevance 0.06
Only few patients with a GHRH-producing pancreatic islet cell tumor and with MEN I syndrome have been described [41, 43, 44].
Gene_expression (producing) of GHRH in pancreatic islet associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, islet cell adenoma and syndrome
7) Confidence 0.66 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 1.61 Pain Relevance 0.13
GABA also modulates GHRH neurons [27], so its potential involvement in the effect of ghrelin on GHRH neurons was studied.
Gene_expression (neurons) of GHRH in neurons associated with gaba
8) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.33
In contrast to this, other data suggest an indirect modulation of GHRH neurons by ghrelin.
Gene_expression (neurons) of GHRH in neurons
9) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.03
Ghrelin consistently depolarized GHRH neurons (from ?
Gene_expression (neurons) of GHRH in neurons
10) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.27
Some mathematical models have incorporated an antagonistic effect of ghrelin on the hypothalamic effects of somatostatin [1], but this is not essential, since in the mouse, the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on GHRH neurons was observed in the absence of somatostatin.
Gene_expression (neurons) of GHRH in neurons associated with somatostatin
11) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.10
Although the same receptors, GHSR, are involved in both regulatory effects, there might be differences in the subsequent transduction pathways underlying the effects of ghrelin in GHRH neurons and NPY neurons.
Gene_expression (neurons) of GHRH in neurons
12) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Superfusion of a GHRH-GFP brain slice with 10 µM U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor [38]–[40], enhanced the firing rate of GHRH neurons, from ?
Gene_expression (neurons) of GHRH in brain
13) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Electrical activation of the arcuate nucleus, which recruits GHRH neurons, is a relevant trigger of GH secretion [55], and in vivo GH secretion is potentiated with increasing duration, but not increasing frequency, of electrical-field stimulations of the arcuate nucleus [55].
Gene_expression (neurons) of GHRH in arcuate nucleus
14) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.11
Here, we took advantage of GHRH-GFP transgenic mice [28] to investigate whether ghrelin modulates GHRH neurons.
Gene_expression (neurons) of GHRH in neurons associated with targeted disruption
15) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.28
These results were typical of six similar experiments, suggesting that ghrelin induced neither a hierarchy, nor a correlation of activity, amongst GHRH neurons.


Neg (neither) Gene_expression (neurons) of GHRH in neurons
16) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The involvement of phospholipase C in GHRH neurons was examined first.
Gene_expression (neurons) of GHRH in neurons
17) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The role of NPY neurons may not be limited to the feeding circuits, per se, since GHRH neurons express NPY Y2 receptors which mediate the downregulation of GHRH mRNA induced by long term fasting in rodents [25], [26].
Gene_expression (neurons) of GHRH in neurons
18) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.26
This direct modulation of GHRH neurons by ghrelin parallels the direct effect of ghrelin on NPY neurons, which orchestrates the activity of the appetite network [2].
Gene_expression (neurons) of GHRH in neurons
19) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.18
Thus, GABAergic neurotransmission was not necessary for the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on GHRH neurons.
Gene_expression (neurons) of GHRH in neurons associated with gabaergic
20) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.32

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