INT19009

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Context Info
Confidence 0.64
First Reported 1991
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 17
Total Number 24
Disease Relevance 5.71
Pain Relevance 2.78

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (Ghsr) signal transducer activity (Ghsr)
Anatomy Link Frequency
pituitary 6
neurons 2
enteric nervous system 2
cholinergic neurons 1
pseudotumor 1
Ghsr (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Neuropeptide 17 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 208 99.06 Very High Very High Very High
Clonidine 3 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
headache 5 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
nud 53 95.04 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 48 94.28 High High
qutenza 14 94.12 High High
antagonist 88 90.56 High High
imagery 5 86.12 High High
Pain 3 80.08 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Hypothyroidism 15 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 58 99.30 Very High Very High Very High
Growth Hormone Deficiency 12 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoglycemia 3 98.60 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 276 97.88 Very High Very High Very High
Dyspepsia 53 95.04 Very High Very High Very High
Gastric Motility Disorder 56 94.36 High High
Hyperplasia 27 91.48 High High
Thyroid Disease 8 80.60 Quite High
Stress 181 79.28 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In vivo studies showed the role of ghrelin in the regulation of the migrating motor complex (MMC) in the fasting state and the involvement of the activation of GHS-R and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and possibly, vagal cholinergic neurons.
Spec (possibly) Positive_regulation (activation) of GHS-R in cholinergic neurons associated with neuropeptide
1) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915793 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
The prokinetic effects of ghrelin on GI motility involve the exclusive activation of the GHS-R 1a receptor, not the motilin receptor, the enteric nervous system (specifically the myenteric plexus), excitatory neurons involving 5-HT4 and NO, capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons, tachykininergic motor neurons, as well as intact vagal cholinergic neurons.
Positive_regulation (activation) of GHS-R in motor neurons associated with qutenza
2) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915793 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0.43
EX-1314 did not accelerate the intestinal transit in ghrelin receptor knockout mice, confirming the necessity of GHS-R activation for the prokinetic action of ghrelin, in accordance to what has been shown in the in vitro studies [15, 32, 36].
Positive_regulation (activation) of GHS-R associated with targeted disruption
3) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915793 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.09
Neither dermorphin nor 2549 released GH or augmented the GH responses of GHRP or GHRH in vitro by a direct pituitary action, while GHRH antiserum inhibited the GH response of both dermorphin and 2549 in vivo.
Positive_regulation (responses) of GHRP in pituitary
4) Confidence 0.49 Published 1991 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 2004615 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.53
In some of the sections their appeared to be some positive staining for ghrelin and GHSR-1a on the oocyte (especially in the larger oocytes).
Positive_regulation (staining) of GHSR in oocytes
5) Confidence 0.48 Published 2005 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC1291400 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
This was verified after statistical analysis of the image analysis data indicating a significant increase in immunostaining levels in the SD photoperiod for both ghrelin (p < 0.01) and GHSR-1a (p < 0.05) (Fig. 5).
Positive_regulation (increase) of GHSR
6) Confidence 0.48 Published 2005 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC1291400 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
These results suggested the presence of GHS-R in the DVC, as well as the involvement of vagal preganglionic neurons in the action of ghrelin on gastric tone.
Positive_regulation (presence) of GHS-R in neurons
7) Confidence 0.46 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915793 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
in vitro studies demonstrated the prokinetic potential of ghrelin or its (receptor) agonists in enhancing gastric muscle contractility via activation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) and direct neural stimulation of the enteric nervous system (ENSs); an effect involving the cholinergic and tachykininergic pathways.
Positive_regulation (activation) of GHS-R in enteric nervous system associated with agonist
8) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915793 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0.05
in vitro studies demonstrated the prokinetic potential of ghrelin or its (receptor) agonists in enhancing gastric muscle contractility via activation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) and direct neural stimulation of the enteric nervous system (ENSs); an effect involving the cholinergic and tachykininergic pathways.
Positive_regulation (activation) of growth hormone secretagogue receptor in enteric nervous system associated with agonist
9) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915793 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0.05
In the small intestine, studies reported a prokinetic effect of ghrelin on jejunal contractility in rodents, involving direct activation of the GHS-R on the myenteric neurons and the cholinergic pathway.
Positive_regulation (activation) of GHS-R in neurons
10) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915793 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0.11
A similar finding was also obtained in GH response to the combined administration of GHRH plus GHRP-6 in patients with GHD of adult onset; this test may well prove valuable in the diagnosis of this clinical entity.
Positive_regulation (response) of GHRP-6 associated with growth hormone deficiency
11) Confidence 0.31 Published 1996 Journal J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 8887178 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0.07
Although we found that the GH response to GHRP-6 was lower in patients with GHD than in normal children, on an individual basis a considerable degree of overlap was observed between the two groups.
Positive_regulation (response) of GHRP-6 associated with growth hormone deficiency
12) Confidence 0.31 Published 1996 Journal J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 8887178 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.09
In order to evaluate GHRP-6 as a test of pituitary GH reserve, we studied GH responses of i.v. administered GHRP-6 in a group of short-statured children, as well as in a group of adults diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) by conventional GH testing.
Positive_regulation (evaluate) of GHRP-6 in pituitary associated with growth hormone deficiency
13) Confidence 0.31 Published 1996 Journal J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 8887178 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.10
These high early postnatal levels of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor correlate with higher GH levels at late embryonic and early postnatal ages (418, 419), when hypothalamic GHRH is still low, suggesting a more important local role of pituitary ghrelin system in releasing GH at that young age and possibly also at puberty.
Spec (possibly) Positive_regulation (levels) of ghrelin receptor in pituitary
14) Confidence 0.18 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Neuroendocrinology Section Body Doc Link PMC2229370 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.03
During fasting, pituitary GHRH receptor and ghrelin receptor mRNA level and sensitivity to GHRH and ghrelin is increased (610, 611).
Positive_regulation (increased) of ghrelin receptor mRNA in pituitary
15) Confidence 0.18 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Neuroendocrinology Section Body Doc Link PMC2229370 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.03
The action would be mediated through the GHS-R, which is highly sensitive to chicken ghrelin.
Positive_regulation (mediated) of GHS-R
16) Confidence 0.17 Published 2007 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 17145117 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.26
Mekinova et al. demonstrated that supplementation of streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats with vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene for 8 weeks produced a significant reduction of TBARS levels, GHS, and GHS-Px, an increase in Cu-SOD, and no change in catalase activity in kidneys [42].
Positive_regulation (increase) of GHS-Px associated with diabetes mellitus
17) Confidence 0.07 Published 2005 Journal Cardiovasc Diabetol Section Body Doc Link PMC1131912 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0
Mekinova et al. demonstrated that supplementation of streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats with vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene for 8 weeks produced a significant reduction of TBARS levels, GHS, and GHS-Px, an increase in Cu-SOD, and no change in catalase activity in kidneys [42].
Positive_regulation (increase) of GHS associated with diabetes mellitus
18) Confidence 0.07 Published 2005 Journal Cardiovasc Diabetol Section Body Doc Link PMC1131912 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0
Interestingly, each has shortcomings, providing opportunities for molecules with 5-HT(4) or motilin receptor selectivity, and for new biology via guanylate cyclase C or ghrelin receptor activation.
Positive_regulation (activation) of ghrelin receptor
19) Confidence 0.07 Published 2008 Journal Neurogastroenterol. Motil. Section Abstract Doc Link 18257767 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.49
Blunted response of GH to GHRP-6 and GHRP-6 plus GHRH were in part due to known effects of hypothyroidism on GH secretion.
Positive_regulation (response) of GHRP-6 associated with hypothyroidism
20) Confidence 0.05 Published 1996 Journal J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 8961133 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.03

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