INT194489

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Context Info
Confidence 0.63
First Reported 2006
Last Reported 2009
Negated 2
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 13
Total Number 16
Disease Relevance 5.88
Pain Relevance 1.22

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (LIPE) extracellular space (LIPE) small molecule metabolic process (LIPE)
lipid particle (LIPE) plasma membrane (LIPE) lipid metabolic process (LIPE)
Anatomy Link Frequency
adipocyte 3
fat 2
lipid droplet 1
muscle 1
skeletal muscle 1
LIPE (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Catecholamine 54 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
adenocard 20 98.70 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 4 96.58 Very High Very High Very High
qutenza 6 90.64 High High
tolerance 2 86.92 High High
agonist 42 52.72 Quite High
noradrenaline 56 34.32 Quite Low
anesthesia 18 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Inflammation 12 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
alcohol 8 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Obesity 1268 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Natriuresis 14 93.80 High High
Hyperinsulinism 8 73.80 Quite High
Insulin Resistance 22 43.80 Quite Low
Hyperglycemia 2 36.80 Quite Low
Diabetes Mellitus 16 30.24 Quite Low
Weight Loss 14 28.48 Quite Low
Body Weight 10 7.68 Low Low
Rheumatoid Arthritis 30 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Heart Rate Under Development 20 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
HSL mRNA levels were elevated in both fat depots whereas perilipin gene expression was either similar or increased in SC and OM depots respectively.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of HSL mRNA in fat
1) Confidence 0.63 Published 2009 Journal Lipids Health Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC2804660 Disease Relevance 0.97 Pain Relevance 0.03
The absence of correlation between protein expression and mRNA level suggests that HSL may be regulated at some post-transcriptional levels (such as phosphorylation which activates HSL activity and induces HSL translocation from the cytosol to the lipid droplet upon adipocyte stimulation [3]).
Positive_regulation (activates) of HSL in adipocyte
2) Confidence 0.45 Published 2009 Journal Lipids Health Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC2804660 Disease Relevance 0.67 Pain Relevance 0.04
In human skeletal muscle, changes in AMPK activity during exercise were also associated with an increased HSL Ser565 phosphorylation, but this was not accompanied by an increased HSL activity, suggesting that AMPK can phosphorylate HSL on Ser565 but that AMPK is of minor importance as a regulator of HSL activity in human skeletal muscle during exercise (11).
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (increased) of HSL in skeletal muscle
3) Confidence 0.45 Published 2008 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2453623 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.10
A more distal defect in catecholamine signal transduction at the level of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, the rate-limiting enzyme for hydrolysis of stored TAGs) is observed in SC fat of obese women and is linked to decreased expression and activity of HSL [4].
Positive_regulation (activity) of HSL in fat associated with catecholamine and obesity
4) Confidence 0.42 Published 2009 Journal Lipids Health Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC2804660 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0.09
HSL distribution between FC and non-lipid fractions in adipocytes showed a higher percentage of HSL coated the lipid droplet in OM tissue compared to SC fat from the obese women (Figure 4).
Positive_regulation (percentage) of HSL in lipid droplet associated with obesity
5) Confidence 0.39 Published 2009 Journal Lipids Health Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC2804660 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.04
-adrenergic stimulation increases HSL activity through phosphorylation on several serine residues.
Positive_regulation (increases) of HSL
6) Confidence 0.33 Published 2008 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2453623 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.03
In vitro studies on purified bovine adipocyte HSL have shown that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates HSL on Ser565, thereby abolishing PKA-induced HSL activation (15).
Positive_regulation (activation) of HSL in adipocyte
7) Confidence 0.30 Published 2008 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2453623 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.10
It should be recognized, however, that when corrected for total HSL protein, HSL Ser563, Ser565, and Ser659 phosphorylation was comparable between lean and obese subjects, suggesting that a similar percentage of HSL molecules was phosphorylated on these three serine sites in lean and obese subjects.
Positive_regulation (percentage) of HSL associated with obesity
8) Confidence 0.28 Published 2008 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2453623 Disease Relevance 0.94 Pain Relevance 0
-adrenergic stimulation to deal with a reduced total HSL protein expression, increasing muscle HSL activity to a level comparable with lean subjects.
Positive_regulation (increasing) of HSL in muscle
9) Confidence 0.28 Published 2008 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2453623 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0
Finally, phosphorylation of the PKA target site Ser563 on HSL did not increase significantly during ?
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (increase) of HSL
10) Confidence 0.26 Published 2008 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2453623 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0
Caffeine inhibits phosphotidiesterase by promoting catecholamine release and increases hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity, which leads to an increase of circulating free fatty acids and further improvement of endurance [32,33].
Positive_regulation (increases) of HSL associated with catecholamine
11) Confidence 0.24 Published 2006 Journal Nutr J Section Body Doc Link PMC1526446 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.14
Caffeine inhibits phosphotidiesterase by promoting catecholamine release and increases hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity, which leads to an increase of circulating free fatty acids and further improvement of endurance [32,33].
Positive_regulation (increases) of hormone-sensitive lipase associated with catecholamine
12) Confidence 0.21 Published 2006 Journal Nutr J Section Body Doc Link PMC1526446 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.14
The increase in cGMP activates cGMP-dependent protein kinase G, which phosphorylates and activates hormone-sensitive lipase.
Positive_regulation (activates) of hormone-sensitive lipase
13) Confidence 0.13 Published 2008 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2584124 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0
In addition, ANP has recently been shown to promote human adipose tissue lipolysis through cGMP-mediated hormone-sensitive lipase activation.
Positive_regulation (activation) of hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue associated with obesity
14) Confidence 0.12 Published 2008 Journal Diabetes Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2584124 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0
For instance, analysis of rat adipocytes following prolonged ad libitum caffeine ingestion (i.e., 14–16 days) revealed that caffeine up-regulates adenosine (A1) receptor content by 37% [9]; this effect being detrimental for HSL activation.
Positive_regulation (activation) of HSL in adipocytes associated with adenocard and obesity
15) Confidence 0.05 Published 2008 Journal J Int Soc Sports Nutr Section Body Doc Link PMC2579279 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.29
The lipolytic mechanisms associated with caffeine ingestion include the following [16]: 1) central nervous system stimulation resulting in an increase in circulating epinephrine, 2) an inhibition in intracellular phosphodiesterase activity leading to sustained intracellular cAMP and activated perilipin and HSL levels, and 3) the antagonism of peripheral adenosine (A1) receptors which further increases intracellular cAMP levels [17].
Positive_regulation (activated) of HSL in central nervous system associated with adenocard and central nervous system
16) Confidence 0.05 Published 2008 Journal J Int Soc Sports Nutr Section Body Doc Link PMC2579279 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.21

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