INT19483

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Context Info
Confidence 0.37
First Reported 1991
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 3
Total Number 14
Disease Relevance 14.10
Pain Relevance 1.36

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
sensorium 2
upper respiratory tract 1
sputum 1
lung 1
bowel 1
Ppcs (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Analgesic 34 98.32 Very High Very High Very High
addiction 22 96.64 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 8 93.28 High High
Nicotine 13 82.56 Quite High
antagonist 13 78.76 Quite High
corticosteroid 45 78.56 Quite High
spastic colon 1 75.00 Quite High
Inflammation 17 71.52 Quite High
Regional anesthesia 58 64.64 Quite High
analgesia 76 63.04 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pulmonary Disease 202 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Hypertension 37 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Asthma 143 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Atelectasis 42 99.40 Very High Very High Very High
Viral Infection 11 99.18 Very High Very High Very High
Delirium 23 99.08 Very High Very High Very High
Irritable Bowel Syndrome /

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Super

14 99.02 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 86 98.78 Very High Very High Very High
Neuromuscular Disease 24 98.78 Very High Very High Very High
Congenital Anomalies 18 98.40 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
However, viral infection in the upper respiratory tract does not increase the risk of PPCs, even in asthmatic patients [29].
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (increase) of PPCs in upper respiratory tract associated with asthma and viral infection
1) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal Osteoporos Int Section Body Doc Link PMC2924432 Disease Relevance 1.52 Pain Relevance 0.04
Most of these symptoms and signs suggest the presence of underlying cardiopulmonary diseases, such as CHF, COPD, or uncontrolled asthma, which will then increase the risk of PPCs [43].
Positive_regulation (increase) of PPCs associated with asthma, pulmonary disease and disease
2) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal Osteoporos Int Section Body Doc Link PMC2924432 Disease Relevance 1.62 Pain Relevance 0.03
Early studies even showed a paradoxical increase in PPCs among those patients who quit less than 6–8 weeks prior to surgery [35, 36], though this phenomenon has not been observed in a recent prospective study [37].
Positive_regulation (increase) of PPCs
3) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal Osteoporos Int Section Body Doc Link PMC2924432 Disease Relevance 1.03 Pain Relevance 0.03
However, some clinical factors, including recent asthma symptoms, use of rescue inhalers, and medical consultation for asthmatic attack, were associated with an increased risk for PPCs [29].
Positive_regulation (increased) of PPCs associated with asthma
4) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal Osteoporos Int Section Body Doc Link PMC2924432 Disease Relevance 1.35 Pain Relevance 0.17
Although other chronic lung diseases such as interstitial lung disease, neuromuscular disease, chest wall deformity, or pulmonary artery hypertension may increase the risk of PPCs after lung resection and other non-cardiothoracic surgery [65, 66], there is no strong evidence suggesting an increased risk for pulmonary complications after hip fracture surgery among patients with these conditions [25].


Spec (may) Positive_regulation (increase) of PPCs in lung associated with interstitial lung diseases, pulmonary disease, neuromuscular disease, frailty and hypertension
5) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal Osteoporos Int Section Body Doc Link PMC2924432 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0
The broad categories of what increases the likelihood of developing a PPC are understood but specific understanding of how individual risk factors act to cause PPCs is lacking,and there is little information regarding the interaction or synergy between risk factors.
Positive_regulation (cause) of PPCs
6) Confidence 0.37 Published 2004 Journal Anesthesiol Clin North America Section Abstract Doc Link 15109692 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.19
Poor general health status, including impaired sensorium and functional dependency, increases the risk of PPCs.
Positive_regulation (increases) of PPCs in sensorium
7) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal Osteoporos Int Section Body Doc Link PMC2924432 Disease Relevance 0.61 Pain Relevance 0.07
Impaired sensorium is defined as either (1) an acutely confused or delirious patient who is able to respond to verbal stimulation, mild tactile stimulation, or both, or (2) a patient with mental status changes, delirium, or both in the context of current illness, modestly increase the risk of PPCs (OR 1.39) [21].
Positive_regulation (increase) of PPCs in sensorium associated with delirium
8) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal Osteoporos Int Section Body Doc Link PMC2924432 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.10
Hg increases the risk of PPCs [71, 72].
Positive_regulation (increases) of PPCs
9) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal Osteoporos Int Section Body Doc Link PMC2924432 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.13
The possible explanations of the increased risk of PPCs are: (1) OSA patients may have coexisting difficult airway and CHF, which may in turn increase the risk of PPCs [32], and (2) the use of anesthetics and analgesics that decrease pharyngeal tone and blunt the ventilatory response to hypoxia, together with supine positioning, may aggravate the severity of OSA during the perioperative period [61].
Positive_regulation (increase) of PPCs associated with hypoxia and analgesic
10) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal Osteoporos Int Section Body Doc Link PMC2924432 Disease Relevance 0.99 Pain Relevance 0.17
A recent systematic review considering multiple risk factors further confirmed that an ASA classification of 2 or higher has an increased risk of PPCs when compared with an ASA class of less than 2 (OR 4.87) [21].


Positive_regulation (increased) of PPCs
11) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal Osteoporos Int Section Body Doc Link PMC2924432 Disease Relevance 0.97 Pain Relevance 0.08
The presence of COPD increases the risk of PPCs by one- to twofold [20, 32, 46].
Positive_regulation (increases) of PPCs associated with pulmonary disease
12) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal Osteoporos Int Section Body Doc Link PMC2924432 Disease Relevance 1.51 Pain Relevance 0
Small bowel motility abnormalities identified reproducibly in IBS include an increase in daytime jejunal DCCs, an increase in daytime ileal PPCs, and more frequent cycling of daytime MMCs (in diarrhea-predominant IBS only).
Positive_regulation (increase) of PPCs in bowel associated with diarrhoea and congenital anomalies
13) Confidence 0.25 Published 1991 Journal Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. Section Abstract Doc Link 2066153 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0.17
A “hang-over” effect comparable to delirium and increased sputum production may actually increase the risk of PPCs, particularly atelectasis and silent bronchoaspiration.
Spec (may) Positive_regulation (increase) of PPCs in sputum associated with atelectasis and delirium
14) Confidence 0.04 Published 2007 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2699974 Disease Relevance 1.13 Pain Relevance 0.18

General Comments

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