INT197459

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Context Info
Confidence 0.01
First Reported 2006
Last Reported 2008
Negated 2
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 10
Total Number 13
Disease Relevance 1.04
Pain Relevance 4.11

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Sostdc1) extracellular region (Sostdc1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
spinal 1
siphon 1
Section 2 1
Sostdc1 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Nicotine 574 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
nMDA receptor 156 98.42 Very High Very High Very High
nMDA receptor antagonist 72 97.42 Very High Very High Very High
withdrawal 223 96.74 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 16 94.54 High High
Glutamate 100 90.90 High High
addiction 307 82.08 Quite High
Nucleus accumbens 57 79.96 Quite High
Dopamine 126 78.64 Quite High
depression 90 78.12 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Calculi 54 88.84 High High
Depression 90 78.12 Quite High
Recurrence 43 76.92 Quite High
Urological Neuroanatomy 18 71.68 Quite High
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 31 70.56 Quite High
Pain 189 57.80 Quite High
Neuropathic Pain 45 57.16 Quite High
Hyperalgesia 72 56.60 Quite High
Drug Dependence 98 50.00 Quite Low
Nociception 90 32.32 Quite Low

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Although Shoaib et al. interpret this effect as indicating that dizocilpine has blocked the development of locomotor sensitization to nicotine,65,88 more recent evidence indicates that similar effects of co-administration of dizocilpine on the subsequent expression of locomotor sensitization to other drugs may be due to state-dependency.89-91 In other words, animals repeatedly injected with a combination of dizocilpine/nicotine may become sensitized to the combination (and to nicotine), but subsequently fail to express sensitization to nicotine alone, as nicotine does not sufficiently reproduce the sensitized dizocilpine/nicotine state.
Neg (fail) Gene_expression (express) of sensitization associated with nicotine
1) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Yonsei Medical Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2615322 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.84
Recent evidence suggests that NMDA-mediated neurotransmission is involved in the development of behavioral sensitization of psychostimulants, opioids, and nicotine.84,85 As reviewed by Wolf,86 several investigators have found that co-administration of non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists such as dizocilpine (MK-801), during repeated injections of these addictive drugs interferes with the development or subsequent expression of locomotor sensitization.
Gene_expression (expression) of sensitization associated with nmda receptor antagonist, nicotine and opioid
2) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Yonsei Medical Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2615322 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.80
To resolve this controversy, Kelsey et al. attempted to determine if the effects of the glutamate NMDA receptor blocker dizocilpine (MK801) on nicotine locomotor sensitization are due to a blockade of the development of sensitization or to state-dependency.92 They concluded that co-administration of a low dose of dizocilpine can block the development of locomotor sensitization to repeated injections of nicotine without producing state-dependency, and thus NMDA receptor activation appears to be critical for the development, but not the subsequent expression, of nicotine locomotor sensitization.
Neg (not) Gene_expression (expression) of sensitization associated with glutamate, nicotine and nmda receptor
3) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Yonsei Medical Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2615322 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.77
Although Shoaib et al. interpret this effect as indicating that dizocilpine has blocked the development of locomotor sensitization to nicotine,65,88 more recent evidence indicates that similar effects of co-administration of dizocilpine on the subsequent expression of locomotor sensitization to other drugs may be due to state-dependency.89-91 In other words, animals repeatedly injected with a combination of dizocilpine/nicotine may become sensitized to the combination (and to nicotine), but subsequently fail to express sensitization to nicotine alone, as nicotine does not sufficiently reproduce the sensitized dizocilpine/nicotine state.
Gene_expression (expression) of sensitization associated with nicotine
4) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Yonsei Medical Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2615322 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.91
Rather than mediated by an extrinsic state system as originally proposed, sensitization induced by a repetitive primary stimulus could be expressed in the primary pathway(s) as with habituation, thus evidencing primary sensitization.
Gene_expression (expressed) of sensitization
5) Confidence 0.01 Published 2006 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC1578596 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.33
Under this nomenclature, we define primary and secondary sensitization as sensitization expressed in the primary or secondary pathway, respectively, regardless of any extrinsic influences on the corresponding induction process (Fig. 1A).
Gene_expression (expressed) of sensitization
6) Confidence 0.01 Published 2006 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC1578596 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.03
The simplest example is a primary integrator-differentiator pair in the form of a sensitization-habituation complex produced by repetitive application of a primary stimulus, as demonstrated in the classic hindlimb flexion reflex of the spinal cat or the rat acoustic startle reflex shown in the dual-process theory [9-11].
Gene_expression (produced) of sensitization in spinal
7) Confidence 0.01 Published 2006 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC1578596 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0
Under this nomenclature, we define primary and secondary sensitization as sensitization expressed in the primary or secondary pathway, respectively, regardless of any extrinsic influences on the corresponding induction process (Fig. 1A).
Gene_expression (expressed) of sensitization
8) Confidence 0.01 Published 2006 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC1578596 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.03
The notion of primary and secondary sensitization introduced in Section 2 underscores a novel behavioral paradigm we call nonassociative gating.
Gene_expression (introduced) of sensitization in Section 2
9) Confidence 0.01 Published 2006 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC1578596 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.03
Such learning-dependent gating has been suggested to account for the bilateral expression of dishabituation vis-à-vis ipsilateral expression of sensitization in this experimental preparation [69,71].


Gene_expression (expression) of sensitization
10) Confidence 0.01 Published 2006 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC1578596 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.12
In a recent model of tail-elicited siphon withdrawal in Aplysia [69,71], however, dishabituation is expressed in reflex pathways both ipsilateral or contralateral to the primary stimulus even though habituation and sensitization are expressed only in the pathway ipsilateral to the primary stimulus.
Gene_expression (expressed) of sensitization in siphon associated with withdrawal
11) Confidence 0.01 Published 2006 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC1578596 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.05
As pointed out by Prescott [31], it is important to distinguish the induction and expression phases of sensitization.
Gene_expression (expression) of sensitization
12) Confidence 0.01 Published 2006 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC1578596 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
Such learning-dependent gating has been suggested to account for the bilateral expression of dishabituation vis-à-vis ipsilateral expression of sensitization in this experimental preparation [69,71].


Gene_expression (expression) of sensitization
13) Confidence 0.01 Published 2006 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC1578596 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0.11

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