INT203020

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Context Info
Confidence 0.68
First Reported 2006
Last Reported 2011
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 37
Total Number 40
Disease Relevance 18.81
Pain Relevance 9.63

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cell proliferation (PYY) extracellular space (PYY) extracellular region (PYY)
cytoskeleton organization (PYY) cell-cell signaling (PYY)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 28
ileum 2
small intestine 2
PYY (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cholecystokinin 2348 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 93 98.32 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 605 98.12 Very High Very High Very High
tolerance 25 95.40 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 80 94.16 High High
agonist 9 92.96 High High
Neurotransmitter 32 84.96 Quite High
Endocannabinoid 15 81.88 Quite High
Dopamine 10 81.76 Quite High
spastic colon 11 74.56 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Critical Illness 1743 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Gastric Motility Disorder 200 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 665 98.12 Very High Very High Very High
Appetite Loss 97 98.08 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 417 97.48 Very High Very High Very High
Eating Disorder 22 97.36 Very High Very High Very High
Cv General 4 Under Development 25 90.48 High High
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 17 90.48 High High
Sepsis 44 89.96 High High
Sleep Disorders 69 87.44 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Whilst we have shown previously that plasma CCK and PYY levels are increased in critically ill patients [28-30] and that CCK and PYY are known to slow GE, the present study is the first to directly demonstrate a relationship between GE and plasma concentrations of CCK and PYY in critical illness.
Positive_regulation (increased) of PYY in plasma associated with critical illness and cholecystokinin
1) Confidence 0.68 Published 2007 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2246231 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.54
However, the concept of heightened hormonal release from a similar nutrient load in critically ill patients, particularly those with impaired motility [28,29], is also illustrated in the present study by the finding that the overall increase in plasma CCK and PYY in patients with delayed GE was similar to those with normal GE.
Positive_regulation (increase) of PYY in plasma associated with critical illness and cholecystokinin
2) Confidence 0.68 Published 2007 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2246231 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.16
The major observations are that, during critical illness, (a) GE was inversely related to both fasting and postprandial plasma CCK and PYY concentrations but (b) the postprandial increases in plasma CCK and PYY were also directly related to GE.
Positive_regulation (increases) of PYY in plasma associated with critical illness and cholecystokinin
3) Confidence 0.68 Published 2007 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2246231 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.39
As observed in lean [1,2,4,7,11,12] and obese [47] healthy subjects, the present study demonstrates a weak but direct relationship between the rate of GE and postprandial increases in plasma CCK and PYY in critically ill patients.
Positive_regulation (increases) of PYY in plasma associated with critical illness, obesity and cholecystokinin
4) Confidence 0.68 Published 2007 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2246231 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0.24
We hypothesised that plasma PYY concentrations would be elevated in response to duodenal nutrient stimulation, particularly in patients with feed intolerance.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of plasma PYY in plasma
5) Confidence 0.65 Published 2006 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC1794491 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0.27
Similarly, fasting plasma PYY concentrations are elevated in the first week of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and normalise after three weeks [20].
Positive_regulation (elevated) of plasma PYY in plasma
6) Confidence 0.65 Published 2006 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC1794491 Disease Relevance 0.78 Pain Relevance 0.18
However, recent data suggest that a lipid amount equivalent to that administered in the current study (20 g) reduced rather than increased PYY concentrations [36].
Positive_regulation (increased) of PYY
7) Confidence 0.57 Published 2006 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC1794491 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.21
In feed-intolerant patients, there was a trend for a greater magnitude of elevation in both PYY (AUC (0–180 min): 2,743 ± 589 versus 1,526 ± 335 pmol/l.min; P = 0.09) and CCK (AUC (0–180 min): 258 ± 43 versus 148 ± 35 pmol/l.min; P = 0.07) concentrations compared with feed-tolerant patients.
Positive_regulation (elevation) of PYY associated with cholecystokinin
8) Confidence 0.57 Published 2006 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC1794491 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0.41
In the fasted state, there is an increase in plasma concentrations of hormones that slow GE, such as CCK and PYY, and a decrease in hormones that may accelerate GE, such as ghrelin [28-30].
Positive_regulation (increase) of PYY in plasma associated with cholecystokinin
9) Confidence 0.49 Published 2007 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2246231 Disease Relevance 0.67 Pain Relevance 0.34
Both fasting and nutrient-stimulated PYY and CCK levels were similar between feed-tolerant patients and healthy subjects.


Positive_regulation (stimulated) of PYY associated with cholecystokinin
10) Confidence 0.47 Published 2006 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC1794491 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.36
CCK appears to be an important 'proximal' mediator in that (a) it stimulates the release of PYY [8], (b) fasting and nutrient-stimulated plasma CCK are elevated in the critically ill [19], and (c) both fasting and nutrient-stimulated plasma PYY concentrations correlate strongly with CCK.
Positive_regulation (stimulated) of plasma PYY in plasma associated with critical illness and cholecystokinin
11) Confidence 0.47 Published 2006 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC1794491 Disease Relevance 0.60 Pain Relevance 0.39
In these patients, fasting PYY levels were positively related to changes in appetite and energy intake [20], suggesting a relationship between critical illness, elevated plasma PYY concentrations, appetite, and possibly gastric emptying.
Spec (possibly) Positive_regulation (elevated) of plasma PYY in plasma associated with critical illness
12) Confidence 0.47 Published 2006 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC1794491 Disease Relevance 0.88 Pain Relevance 0.03
This study was designed to examine the following hypotheses: (a) slow GE is associated with elevated plasma concentrations of CCK and PYY, and (b) GE is a determinant of postprandial concentrations of CCK and PYY in the critically ill.


Positive_regulation (elevated) of PYY in plasma associated with critical illness and cholecystokinin
13) Confidence 0.46 Published 2007 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2246231 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.33
Plasma CCK and PYY concentrations are elevated in critically ill patients, particularly in those with a history of feed intolerance.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of PYY in Plasma associated with critical illness and cholecystokinin
14) Confidence 0.46 Published 2007 Journal Crit Care Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2246231 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.25
Furthermore, both plasma CCK and PYY concentrations are elevated in patients with chronic nutrient deprivation, malnutrition, and anorexia nervosa [20-22], conditions that are known to be associated with a high prevalence of delayed GE [23,24].
Positive_regulation (elevated) of PYY in plasma associated with appetite loss, cholecystokinin and eating disorder
15) Confidence 0.46 Published 2007 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2246231 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.39
Key messages

• In critical illness, plasma PYY concentrations are elevated during both fasting and nutrient-stimulation, particularly in feed-intolerant patients. • In critical illness, the release of PYY in response to nutrients is not dose-dependent. • In critical illness, there is a close relationship between nutrient-stimulated plasma PYY concentration and CCK concentration. • These observations support the concept that the humoral mediators of the 'entero-gastric' response are enhanced in critical illness, providing a potential mechanism for delayed gastric emptying and possible targets for therapy.


Positive_regulation (elevated) of plasma PYY in plasma associated with critical illness, gastric motility disorder and cholecystokinin
16) Confidence 0.43 Published 2006 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC1794491 Disease Relevance 0.86 Pain Relevance 0.12
Both fasting and duodenal nutrient-stimulated plasma PYY concentrations are elevated in critical illness, particularly in patients who are intolerant to gastric feeding.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of plasma PYY in plasma associated with critical illness
17) Confidence 0.43 Published 2006 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC1794491 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0.09
The decrease in plasma ghrelin during critical illness suggests that the elevated PYY and CCK responses may be a specific phenomenon.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of PYY in plasma associated with critical illness and cholecystokinin
18) Confidence 0.43 Published 2006 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC1794491 Disease Relevance 0.79 Pain Relevance 0.08
In critical illness, both fasting and nutrient-stimulated plasma PYY concentrations are elevated, particularly in patients with feed intolerance, in conjunction with increased CCK concentrations.



Positive_regulation (elevated) of plasma PYY in plasma associated with critical illness and cholecystokinin
19) Confidence 0.43 Published 2006 Journal Crit Care Section Abstract Doc Link PMC1794491 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.17
Fasting plasma PYY level was higher in critically ill patients than in healthy subjects (26.7 ± 4.4 versus 16.3 ± 2.0 pmol/l; P < 0.05).
Positive_regulation (Fasting) of plasma PYY in plasma associated with critical illness
20) Confidence 0.41 Published 2006 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC1794491 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0.04

General Comments

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