INT20650

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Context Info
Confidence 0.69
First Reported 1990
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 26
Total Number 26
Disease Relevance 15.49
Pain Relevance 5.08

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

peptidase activity (F2) extracellular space (F2) extracellular region (F2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
platelet 3
muscle 2
blood 1
leukocyte 1
cleavage 1
F2 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Inflammatory mediators 9 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 35 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
bradykinin 5 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 384 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 20 97.48 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 12 96.96 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 80 96.16 Very High Very High Very High
interstitial cystitis 2 95.76 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperalgesia 5 95.04 Very High Very High Very High
alcohol 3 94.44 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
INFLAMMATION 381 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Sprains And Strains 71 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Myoglobinuria 1 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 16 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 17 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Non-genital Cutaneous Warts 2 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
Lung Injury 240 98.66 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 68 98.60 Very High Very High Very High
Uremia 1 98.60 Very High Very High Very High
Abscess 126 98.28 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Patients typically had early marked increase and rapid decrease of serum aminotransferases, mild-to-moderate increase in prothrombin time, myoglobinuria, and moderate azotemia.
Positive_regulation (increase) of prothrombin associated with myoglobinuria and uremia
1) Confidence 0.69 Published 1990 Journal Gastroenterology Section Abstract Doc Link 2153087 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.46
The application of ACh to electrically blocked muscle cultures resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in thrombin activity released into the medium and a 2-fold increase in prothrombin gene expression.
Positive_regulation (increase) of thrombin in muscle
2) Confidence 0.66 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9125468 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.38
Cholinergic stimulation increases thrombin activity and gene expression in cultured mouse muscle.
Positive_regulation (increases) of thrombin in muscle
3) Confidence 0.66 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 9125468 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.17
These results suggest that thrombin or a thrombin-like molecule released from muscle is required for activity-dependent synapse elimination and is regulated by neuromuscular activity.
Positive_regulation (required) of thrombin in synapse
4) Confidence 0.48 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9125468 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.33
This included inhibitory effects on lysophosphatidic acid, purinergic (ATP), bradykinin, and protease-activated (thrombin) receptors.
Positive_regulation (activated) of thrombin associated with bradykinin
5) Confidence 0.20 Published 2010 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 20685973 Disease Relevance 1.17 Pain Relevance 0.90
Platelet activation is triggered by subendothelial collagens, thromboxane A2 (TxA2) and ADP released from activated platelets, and thrombin generated by the coagulation cascade (4).
Positive_regulation (generated) of thrombin in Platelet
6) Confidence 0.16 Published 2008 Journal The Journal of Experimental Medicine Section Body Doc Link PMC2442636 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0.09
Thus we propose that higher levels of thrombin can act in a similar way to other better-studied pro-inflammatory mediators, in promoting neurogenic inflammation and heat hyperalgesia in injured tissues through the sensitization of TRPV1.


Positive_regulation (levels) of thrombin associated with hyperalgesia, inflammatory mediators, inflammation and neurogenic inflammation
7) Confidence 0.14 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2956715 Disease Relevance 1.24 Pain Relevance 0.90
Because thrombin is known to activate Rho both in vivo and in vitro, increased thrombin levels may become a considerable factor contributing to the Rho-mediated vascular endothelial barrier dysfunction caused by HTV mechanical ventilation.
Positive_regulation (increased) of thrombin
8) Confidence 0.14 Published 2008 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2374596 Disease Relevance 0.84 Pain Relevance 0.03
Clinical isolates of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus secrete coagulase (Coa), a polypeptide that binds to and activates prothrombin, thereby converting fibrinogen to fibrin and promoting clotting of plasma or blood.
Positive_regulation (activates) of prothrombin in blood associated with coagulation disorder
9) Confidence 0.14 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2916881 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0
Coa and vWbp promote the non-proteolytic activation of prothrombin and cleavage of fibrinogen, reactions that are inhibited with specific antibody against each of these molecules.
Positive_regulation (activation) of prothrombin in cleavage
10) Confidence 0.14 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2916881 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0
Thrombin-induced Rho activation was significantly increased in ECs preconditioned at 18% CS as compared with ECs exposed to 5% CS (Figure 8a).
Positive_regulation (increased) of Thrombin
11) Confidence 0.10 Published 2008 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2374596 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0
Effects of OxPAPC on Rac and Rho activation following cyclic stretch and thrombin stimulation
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of thrombin
12) Confidence 0.10 Published 2008 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2374596 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Fluorescence microscopy was used to study the accumulation of platelets, FXa, (pro)thrombin, and fibrin(ogen) in thrombi formed in vitro and in vivo.
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of thrombin in platelets
13) Confidence 0.10 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2861630 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0
For instance, exposure of tissue factor (TF) and activation of TF-induced thrombin generation is now also considered to play a key role in thrombi formed in the arterial circulation [4], [5].
Positive_regulation (activation) of thrombin
14) Confidence 0.10 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2861630 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.04
Intravenous injection of C57BL/6 mice with Stx2 and/or LPS has been shown to induce TF expression in the kidneys and increase thrombin generation (detected by levels of thrombin-antithrombin III complex) indicating increased coagulability [40].
Positive_regulation (increase) of thrombin
15) Confidence 0.10 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2735777 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0
Mice were treated intravenously with OxPAPC (1.5 mg/kg), oxidation-resistant phospholipid (di-myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine [DMPC]) (1.5 mg/kg), Rho inhibitor Y27632 (10 mg/kg), or thrombin signaling peptide TRAP-6 (thrombin receptor activating peptide-6) (3 × 10-7 mol/mouse) followed by HTV or LTV (30 or 7 mL/kg, respectively, at 75 breaths per minute and 0 PEEP for 4 hours).
Positive_regulation (activating) of thrombin
16) Confidence 0.10 Published 2008 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2374596 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.14
Mice were treated intravenously with OxPAPC (1.5 mg/kg), oxidation-resistant phospholipid (di-myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine [DMPC]) (1.5 mg/kg), Rho inhibitor Y27632 (10 mg/kg), or thrombin signaling peptide TRAP-6 (thrombin receptor activating peptide-6) (3 × 10-7 mol/mouse) followed by HTV or LTV (30 or 7 mL/kg, respectively, at 75 breaths per minute and 0 PEEP for 4 hours).
Positive_regulation (activating) of thrombin
17) Confidence 0.10 Published 2008 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2374596 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.14
Clinical studies suggest that the vascular leak observed in VILI patients is caused by a combination of lung mechanical strain and increased levels of edemagenic and inflammatory mediators such as thrombin, histamine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-1 [51-54].
Positive_regulation (increased) of thrombin in lung associated with lung injury, necrosis, inflammatory mediators, cancer and sprains and strains
18) Confidence 0.10 Published 2008 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2374596 Disease Relevance 1.41 Pain Relevance 0.23
In addition to the J82 cell line, expression of PARs in RT4 bladder papilloma cells was inferred based on findings that RT4 cells respond to activators of PARs such as thrombin, tryptase, and PAR-activating peptides[30].
Positive_regulation (activators) of thrombin in RT4 associated with non-genital cutaneous warts and carcinoma
19) Confidence 0.08 Published 2007 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC1853108 Disease Relevance 1.26 Pain Relevance 0.18
The activity of mast cell-derived tryptase as well as thrombin is significantly increased during inflammation.
Positive_regulation (increased) of thrombin in mast cell associated with inflammation
20) Confidence 0.08 Published 2007 Journal BMC Physiol Section Abstract Doc Link PMC1853108 Disease Relevance 0.83 Pain Relevance 0.39

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