INT20922

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Context Info
Confidence 0.67
First Reported 1988
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 18
Total Number 19
Disease Relevance 11.12
Pain Relevance 6.79

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (CRH) extracellular space (CRH) extracellular region (CRH)
response to stress (CRH)
Anatomy Link Frequency
hypothalamus 4
plasma 2
corticotroph 2
subthalamus 2
molar 2
CRH (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
metalloproteinase 124 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 38 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 13 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 33 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 7 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
lidocaine 2 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Clonidine 4 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory mediators 5 98.74 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 5 98.40 Very High Very High Very High
carbamazepine 1 97.40 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 210 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 15 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 69 98.94 Very High Very High Very High
Syndrome 23 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 133 98.54 Very High Very High Very High
Irritable Bowel Syndrome /

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Super

77 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
Pituitary Cancer 21 97.98 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 120 97.60 Very High Very High Very High
Cushing's Syndrome /

Hypercortisolism

7 97.52 Very High Very High Very High
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 156 96.16 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The mechanism of this response is thought to be via increased hypothalamic CRH secretion.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (secretion) of CRH
1) Confidence 0.67 Published 1995 Journal J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 7829620 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.33
In vitro, procaine and lidocaine both produced significant dose-related increases in immunoreactive CRH release from rat hypothalami, maximal at 10(-6) M, that were blocked by carbamazepine, a limbic anticonvulsant used in the management of mood disorders.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Localization (release) of CRH associated with affective disorder, anticonvulsant, lidocaine and carbamazepine
2) Confidence 0.67 Published 1994 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 8138967 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.58
For example, Wang et al. [16] identified four genes that activate the secretion of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus and that show significantly higher expression in depressed than in nondepressed persons.
Positive_regulation (activate) of Localization (secretion) of CRH in hypothalamus
3) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal Depression Research and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2989690 Disease Relevance 1.43 Pain Relevance 0.28
METHODS: We administered interleukin-6 (IL-6; 3 microg/kg of body weight subcutaneously), a cytokine capable of stimulating hypothalamic CRH release, and measured plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and catecholamines and their metabolites and precursors.
Positive_regulation (stimulating) of Localization (release) of CRH in plasma
4) Confidence 0.49 Published 2000 Journal Arthritis Rheum. Section Body Doc Link 10765933 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0
Inflammatory mediators activate hypothalamic pathways, and a negative feedback loop, mediated by CRF release, has been proposed because animals with impaired hypothalamic CRF responses are more susceptible to inflammatory stimuli.
Positive_regulation (mediated) of Localization (release) of CRF associated with inflammatory mediators and inflammatory stimuli
5) Confidence 0.49 Published 2001 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11171612 Disease Relevance 0.97 Pain Relevance 0.54
Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, stimulates ACTH secretion, probably via release of endogenous hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). 2.
Spec (probably) Positive_regulation (stimulates) of Localization (release) of corticotropin releasing hormone associated with antagonist, narcan and opioid
6) Confidence 0.45 Published 1993 Journal Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8391944 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.32
This may be interpreted as the fact that the acetylcholinergic effect of galantamine facilitates the release of CRH hormone and in turn, causes elevated DHEAS levels to decrease through recovering the existing tentative disturbance in metabolic shift from cortisol to DHEAS.
Positive_regulation (facilitates) of Localization (release) of CRH
7) Confidence 0.43 Published 2009 Journal Psychiatry Investigation Section Body Doc Link PMC2796068 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0
Finally, the cholinergic effect of galantamine that facilitates release of CRH may cause reduction in DHEAS levels and the normalization of high DHEAS/cortisol molar ratio.
Positive_regulation (facilitates) of Localization (release) of CRH in molar
8) Confidence 0.43 Published 2009 Journal Psychiatry Investigation Section Body Doc Link PMC2796068 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.08
Acetylcholine has a general steroidogenic effect and this effect is mediated by ACTH via muscarinic receptors.22-24 Under conditions of stress, acetylcholine facilitates the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
Positive_regulation (facilitates) of Localization (release) of CRH associated with stress
9) Confidence 0.43 Published 2009 Journal Psychiatry Investigation Section Body Doc Link PMC2796068 Disease Relevance 1.12 Pain Relevance 0.04
Li and Challis showed an induced secretion of MMP-9 by CRH in the cell cultures from human placenta and fetal membranes.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (secretion) of CRH in placenta associated with metalloproteinase
10) Confidence 0.39 Published 2008 Journal Molecular Human Reproduction Section Body Doc Link PMC2639405 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.32
In humans, the opioid antagonist, naloxone, stimulates the release of CRH, and so of ACTH and cortisol, while alprazolam, an indirect GABAA agonist, blocks naloxone-induced ACTH and cortisol secretion.
Positive_regulation (stimulates) of Localization (release) of CRH associated with antagonist, agonist, narcan and opioid
11) Confidence 0.39 Published 1995 Journal Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8582096 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.59
It responds by providing the stimulus to cortico-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to increase the secretion of principal neuropeptide CRH and arginine vasopressin (AVP) into the hypophyseal portal bloodstream.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (secretion) of CRH in hypothalamus associated with neuropeptide
12) Confidence 0.37 Published 2006 Journal Chiropr Osteopat Section Body Doc Link PMC1629015 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0.20
We conclude that clonidine, by blocking central noradrenergic pathways, which stimulate corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion, inhibits naloxone-induced ACTH secretion.
Positive_regulation (stimulate) of Localization (secretion) of corticotropin-releasing hormone associated with narcan and clonidine
13) Confidence 0.34 Published 1990 Journal Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2160341 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.66
Thus, it has been proposed that the release of CRH, ACTH, and subsequently GCs induces the selective suppression of the Th1-mediated cellular immunity and elicits a skew in the direction of Th2-dominated immunity.
Positive_regulation (induces) of Localization (release) of CRH
14) Confidence 0.24 Published 2007 Journal Semin Immunopathol Section Body Doc Link PMC2668599 Disease Relevance 1.13 Pain Relevance 0.30
The last observation is significant, because higher doses of ghrelin/GHS evoke ACTH, cortisol, and prolactin secretion acutely in humans and animals, putatively by inducing hypothalamic secretion of one or both primary ACTH-releasing peptides, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), and arginine vasopressin (AVP) [272, 274–278].
Positive_regulation (inducing) of Localization (secretion) of CRH
15) Confidence 0.20 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0.03
Such ‘body–brain cross talk’ may subsequently perpetuate stress perception and trigger the release of central CRH and the onset of behavioral alterations, i.e., sickness behavior, via elevated circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines bypassing/crossing the BBB or via stimulation of vagal afferents by peritoneal pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Positive_regulation (trigger) of Localization (release) of CRH in body associated with stress, inflammation and cytokine
16) Confidence 0.19 Published 2007 Journal Semin Immunopathol Section Body Doc Link PMC2668599 Disease Relevance 1.69 Pain Relevance 1.09
In preclinical studies, pasireotide has shown significant inhibition of basal and stimulated ACTH release in human ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas [66,67] and in AtT-20 murine corticotroph tumor cells [66,68], as well as significant inhibition of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-induced ACTH release in rats (Figure 1) [69,70].
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (release) of corticotropin-releasing hormone in corticotroph associated with cancer and pituitary cancer
17) Confidence 0.10 Published 2010 Journal BMC Endocr Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC2887860 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.10
It seems that stress-induced release of CRF from subthalamus increases the production of mediators like histamine from mast cells.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (release) of CRF in subthalamus associated with stress
18) Confidence 0.03 Published 2010 Journal Gut Pathog Section Body Doc Link PMC2876056 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0.89
Stimulation by hCRF of C-peptide release in type 2 diabetics during concomitant opioid receptor blockade.
Positive_regulation (Stimulation) of Localization (release) of hCRF associated with diabetes mellitus, narcan and opioid receptor
19) Confidence 0.00 Published 1988 Journal Klin. Wochenschr. Section Title Doc Link 2836651 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.42

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