INT21214

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Context Info
Confidence 0.58
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 21
Total Number 21
Disease Relevance 9.14
Pain Relevance 9.53

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (PENK) extracellular region (PENK)
Anatomy Link Frequency
amygdala 4
joint 2
endothelial cell 2
putamen 2
neurons 2
PENK (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 87 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 18 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer pain 2 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
mu opioid receptor 3 99.26 Very High Very High Very High
amygdala 5 98.68 Very High Very High Very High
alcohol 17 97.36 Very High Very High Very High
cannabis 6 96.84 Very High Very High Very High
dopamine receptor 8 96.46 Very High Very High Very High
Cholecystokinin 6 95.88 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 16 93.64 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 22 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Bone Cancer 2 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 395 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Prostate Cancer 45 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 13 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer Pain 2 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Glioma 13 99.38 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 15 99.02 Very High Very High Very High
Aging 2 98.56 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 64 98.44 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
After 3 days the expression of the enkephalin gene in endothelial cell growth supplement-differentiated cells was significantly reduced by 75% as compared to the nondifferentiated cells, while there was no change in the expression of the cholecystokinin and gastrin-releasing peptide genes during differentiation.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin gene in endothelial cell associated with enkephalin and cholecystokinin
1) Confidence 0.58 Published 1990 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 2211684 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.71
Testosterone propionate treatment reduced proenkephalin expression in the diagonal band of Broca, the caudal preoptic area, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in preoptic area
2) Confidence 0.57 Published 2003 Journal Biol. Reprod. Section Abstract Doc Link 12930728 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.13
Reduction in the ratio of beta-preprotachykinin to preproenkephalin messenger RNA expression in postmortem human putamen during aging and in patients with status lacunaris.
Negative_regulation (Reduction) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin messenger RNA in putamen associated with aging and enkephalin
3) Confidence 0.53 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 9369304 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.80
Decreased PENK expression may be due to gene methylation as reported in pancreatic cancer [19].
Negative_regulation (Decreased) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK associated with pancreatic cancer
4) Confidence 0.49 Published 2005 Journal BMC Urol Section Body Doc Link PMC1327674 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0.19
Previously, we showed that cancer epithelial cells are CD10 negative [11], which would further suggest a link between PENK and CD10 as defects in enkephalinase activity may be associated with decreased PENK expression in cancer.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK in epithelial cells associated with cancer
5) Confidence 0.49 Published 2005 Journal BMC Urol Section Body Doc Link PMC1327674 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0.20
In PC12 and C6-glioma cells, depolarization-induced expression of a transfected proenkephalin fusion gene was proportional to extracellular calcium concentration and was inhibited by verapamil.
Negative_regulation (inhibited) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin fusion gene associated with glioma
6) Confidence 0.44 Published 1990 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 2167356 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0
Prenatal cannabis exposure was significantly associated with increased mu receptor expression in the amygdala, reduced kappa receptor mRNA in mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and reduced preproenkephalin expression in the caudal putamen.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in amygdala associated with cannabis and amygdala
7) Confidence 0.43 Published 2006 Journal Pharmacogenomics J. Section Abstract Doc Link 16477274 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.84
The therapeutic potential of reducing enkephalin production or signaling merits further exploration.
Negative_regulation (reducing) of Gene_expression (production) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin
8) Confidence 0.41 Published 2008 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 18463254 Disease Relevance 0.88 Pain Relevance 0.81
The ratio of beta-preprotachykinin to preproenkephalin mRNA expression decreased with age.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin mRNA
9) Confidence 0.39 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9369304 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.66
In the tumor samples analyzed there was down-regulation of PENK expression.
Negative_regulation (regulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK associated with cancer
10) Confidence 0.36 Published 2005 Journal BMC Urol Section Body Doc Link PMC1327674 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0.22
In the tumor samples analyzed there was down-regulation of PENK expression.
Negative_regulation (down) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK associated with cancer
11) Confidence 0.36 Published 2005 Journal BMC Urol Section Body Doc Link PMC1327674 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0.22
Gene expression analysis showed that PENK expression was down-regulated in prostate cancer.


Negative_regulation (down) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK associated with prostate cancer
12) Confidence 0.36 Published 2005 Journal BMC Urol Section Abstract Doc Link PMC1327674 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0
Gene expression analysis showed that PENK expression was down-regulated in prostate cancer.


Negative_regulation (regulated) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK associated with prostate cancer
13) Confidence 0.36 Published 2005 Journal BMC Urol Section Abstract Doc Link PMC1327674 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0
Herpes vector-mediated expression of proenkephalin reduces bone cancer pain.
Negative_regulation (reduces) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin associated with cancer pain, enkephalin and bone cancer
14) Confidence 0.36 Published 2002 Journal Ann. Neurol. Section Title Doc Link 12402268 Disease Relevance 0.84 Pain Relevance 0.52
Cellular localisation of enkephalin gene expression in MPTP-treated cynomolgus monkeys.
Negative_regulation (localisation) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin gene associated with parkinson's disease and enkephalin
15) Confidence 0.33 Published 1989 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 2788792 Disease Relevance 0.59 Pain Relevance 0.55
Prenatal cannabis exposure was significantly associated with increased mu receptor expression in the amygdala, reduced kappa receptor mRNA in mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and reduced preproenkephalin expression in the caudal putamen.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in amygdala associated with cannabis and amygdala
16) Confidence 0.32 Published 2006 Journal Pharmacogenomics J. Section Abstract Doc Link 16477274 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.84
Taken together, these results suggest that the down-regulation of D2 dopamine receptor and D2 receptor messenger RNA is the result of the persistent stimulation of D2 receptors and that the up-regulation of mu opioid receptors may be a compensatory response to a decreased biosynthesis of enkephalin.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Gene_expression (biosynthesis) of enkephalin associated with dopamine receptor, mu opioid receptor and enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.13 Published 2008 Journal Theor Biol Med Model Section Body Doc Link PMC2615745 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.53
Expression of enkephalin from TK-negative vectors did not only reduce pain-related behaviours, but also prevented cartilagine and bone distruction in the inflamed joint.
Negative_regulation (prevented) of Gene_expression (Expression) of enkephalin in joint associated with pain and enkephalin
18) Confidence 0.09 Published 2010 Journal The Open Virology Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2936037 Disease Relevance 1.24 Pain Relevance 1.29
Reduced expression of preproenkephalin in striatal neurons from Huntington's disease patients.
Negative_regulation (Reduced) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in neurons associated with enkephalin and disease
19) Confidence 0.04 Published 1995 Journal Ann. Neurol. Section Title Doc Link 7695232 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.33
Enkephalin messenger RNA expression was up-regulated in the dentate gyrus granular layer and in ventral cortices, but down-regulated in the CA1 pyramidal layer.
Negative_regulation (down-regulated) of Gene_expression (expression) of Enkephalin messenger RNA in ventral associated with enkephalin
20) Confidence 0.03 Published 2000 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 11008168 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0.68

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