INT21344

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Context Info
Confidence 0.57
First Reported 1982
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 34
Total Number 35
Disease Relevance 8.83
Pain Relevance 23.32

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 5
brain 5
neuron 3
lung 3
tail 2
Penk (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 136 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 34 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 8 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 34 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
withdrawal 2 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 21 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 4 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
dopamine receptor 1 99.42 Very High Very High Very High
depression 14 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
ischemia 4 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Aggression 4 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Anxiety Disorder 2 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 14 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
Cv Unclassified Under Development 4 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 1 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoxia 12 99.14 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 4 99.14 Very High Very High Very High
Opiate Addiction 1 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 2 98.32 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 30 97.32 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
SP, Enk, VIP, PHI, and BLIP levels were all decreased in the distal colon of piebald mice as compared to normal littermates, SP, BLIP, and Enk levels were also decreased in the dilated proximal colon of piebald mice.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Enk in proximal associated with enkephalin and substance p
1) Confidence 0.57 Published 1985 Journal J. Surg. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 3990276 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.68
SP, Enk, VIP, PHI, and BLIP levels were all decreased in the distal colon of piebald mice as compared to normal littermates, SP, BLIP, and Enk levels were also decreased in the dilated proximal colon of piebald mice.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Enk in proximal associated with enkephalin and substance p
2) Confidence 0.57 Published 1985 Journal J. Surg. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 3990276 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.70
After 3 h the same treatment also reduced by about 30% the level of proenkephalin mRNA, this change being maximal after 6 h (-45%) and still present after 24 h.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of proenkephalin
3) Confidence 0.52 Published 1990 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2170800 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.82
In this study we demonstrate that, surprisingly, animals lacking enkephalin (preproenkephalin, Penk1(-/-)) showed no depression-related phenotype in the Porsolt forced swimming or tail suspension tests.
Negative_regulation (lacking) of preproenkephalin in tail associated with depression and enkephalin
4) Confidence 0.51 Published 2007 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 17375141 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0.65
In this study we demonstrate that, surprisingly, animals lacking enkephalin (preproenkephalin, Penk1(-/-)) showed no depression-related phenotype in the Porsolt forced swimming or tail suspension tests.
Negative_regulation (lacking) of Penk1 in tail associated with depression and enkephalin
5) Confidence 0.43 Published 2007 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 17375141 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0.65
Mice lacking the proenkephalin gene and therefore lacking the endogenous enkephalin peptides have been successfully developed and exhibit decreased locomotor activity, are hyperalgesic and show enhanced anxiety and aggression.
Negative_regulation (lacking) of proenkephalin gene associated with hyperalgesia, eae, aggression, anxiety disorder and enkephalin
6) Confidence 0.43 Published 2004 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 15464738 Disease Relevance 0.61 Pain Relevance 0.81
We found that brain levels of Met-Enk peaked after 7 days of ethanol ingestion and declined to levels lower than control by 28 days.
Negative_regulation (declined) of Met-Enk in brain
7) Confidence 0.43 Published 2003 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 15127945 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.21
Histochemical methods revealed a loss of Enk immunoreactivity from the arcuate nucleus and all layers of the median eminence.
Negative_regulation (loss) of Enk in median eminence associated with enkephalin
8) Confidence 0.42 Published 1982 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7039767 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.78
ENK-levels varied in a regionally-dependent manner and were significantly decreased in hypothalamus and spinal cord.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of ENK in hypothalamus associated with enkephalin and spinal cord
9) Confidence 0.41 Published 1997 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 9347938 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 1.50
The hypothermic effect of D-ENK-O was almost completely reduced by naloxone which suggests an involvement of opiate receptors in the D-ENK-O produced hypothermia in mice.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of ENK associated with hypothermia, narcan and opiate
10) Confidence 0.41 Published 1987 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 3658811 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.50
The addition of enzyme inhibitors and absorption enhancers markedly increased the inhibition rate of Leu-Enk and YAGFL; their inhibition rates were about four times and twice those without any enzyme inhibitor or absorption enhancer, respectively.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of Enk
11) Confidence 0.41 Published 2003 Journal J. Pharm. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 14604463 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.45
Pain responses, anxiety and aggression in mice deficient in pre-proenkephalin.
Negative_regulation (deficient) of pre-proenkephalin associated with pain, aggression and anxiety disorder
12) Confidence 0.38 Published 1996 Journal Nature Section Title Doc Link 8849726 Disease Relevance 0.79 Pain Relevance 1.26
In contrast to PDYN, the PENK mRNA level was reduced in the nucleus accumbens and remained unchanged in the striatum following repeated morphine administration.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of PENK in striatum associated with nucleus accumbens and morphine
13) Confidence 0.38 Published 1997 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 9574833 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.97
The above results indicate that repeated morphine leads to long-lasting upregulation of the PDYN gene expression in the mouse nucleus accumbens and striatum; on the other hand, the PENK and D2 mRNA gene expressions are either inhibited or remain unchanged, significant changes being observed in the nucleus accumbens only.
Negative_regulation (inhibited) of PENK in nucleus accumbens associated with nucleus accumbens and morphine
14) Confidence 0.37 Published 1997 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 9574833 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.92
These results suggest that the 1.45-kb proenkephalin mRNA is developmentally down-regulated in mouse interstitial cells and that this process requires ongoing spermatogenesis.
Negative_regulation (down-regulated) of proenkephalin mRNA in interstitial cells
15) Confidence 0.37 Published 1994 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 7925115 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
When Penk was deleted in Phex-deficient Hyp mice, however, we observed a significant reduction of the osteoid enrichment at 24 weeks of age, whereas their disturbance of mineral homeostasis was not affected by the additional absence of the Penk gene.
Negative_regulation (absence) of Penk
16) Confidence 0.36 Published 2010 Journal Calcif. Tissue Int. Section Abstract Doc Link 20204609 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.15
A single dose of nicotine given to mice induces first a rapid decrease (presumed release/enhanced degradation) and then a rise (presumed synthesis/enhanced accumulation) of met-enkephalin (Met-Enk) in dorsal and ventral striatum observed at 30 and 60 min post-treatment, respectively.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of Met-Enk in dorsal associated with nicotine and enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.24 Published 2000 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 10996137 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.72
NAL which intensified the in vitro inhibitory effect of the used opioids showed an antagonistic effect on the in vivo suppressive effect of BETA-END on both brain and lung ACE activities whereas it had neither antagonistic nor synergistic effect on the in vivo inhibiting effect of MET-ENK and LEU-ENK on the lung ACE activity.
Negative_regulation (inhibiting) of MET-ENK in brain associated with narcan and opioid
18) Confidence 0.23 Published 1986 Journal Pharmacol Res Commun Section Abstract Doc Link 3014570 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.67
NAL which intensified the in vitro inhibitory effect of the used opioids showed an antagonistic effect on the in vivo suppressive effect of BETA-END on both brain and lung ACE activities whereas it had neither antagonistic nor synergistic effect on the in vivo inhibiting effect of MET-ENK and LEU-ENK on the lung ACE activity.
Negative_regulation (inhibiting) of LEU-ENK in brain associated with narcan and opioid
19) Confidence 0.20 Published 1986 Journal Pharmacol Res Commun Section Abstract Doc Link 3014570 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.67
NAL which intensified the in vitro inhibitory effect of the used opioids showed an antagonistic effect on the in vivo suppressive effect of BETA-END on both brain and lung ACE activities whereas it had neither antagonistic nor synergistic effect on the in vivo inhibiting effect of MET-ENK and LEU-ENK on the lung ACE activity.
Negative_regulation (inhibiting) of LEU-ENK in brain associated with narcan and opioid
20) Confidence 0.20 Published 1986 Journal Pharmacol Res Commun Section Abstract Doc Link 3014570 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.67

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