INT216104

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Context Info
Confidence 0.46
First Reported 2007
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 23
Total Number 23
Disease Relevance 4.52
Pain Relevance 0.68

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (Dmd) cytoskeleton (Dmd) nucleus (Dmd)
cytoplasm (Dmd)
Anatomy Link Frequency
muscle 8
muscle fibers 4
myocardium 2
muscle cells 2
photoreceptor cells 2
Dmd (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
amygdala 15 91.96 High High
Potency 39 88.96 High High
tetrodotoxin 23 86.28 High High
fibrosis 61 74.76 Quite High
metalloproteinase 1 59.80 Quite High
imagery 41 55.76 Quite High
Neurotransmitter 66 52.20 Quite High
GABAergic 24 40.64 Quite Low
Hippocampus 36 38.56 Quite Low
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase 3 34.08 Quite Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Muscular Dystrophy 546 99.16 Very High Very High Very High
Body Weight 37 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
Death 38 97.44 Very High Very High Very High
Congenital Anomalies 44 94.32 High High
Intellectual Impairment 21 93.32 High High
Anxiety Disorder 6 90.68 High High
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy 20 88.64 High High
Night Blindness 3 88.08 High High
Apoptosis 13 87.12 High High
Targeted Disruption 71 84.96 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In particular, Na+ overload in mdx5cv fibers significantly contributes to cell degradation and early death.
Positive_regulation (overload) of Gene_expression (overload) of mdx5cv associated with death
1) Confidence 0.46 Published 2008 Journal The Journal of General Physiology Section Body Doc Link PMC2483333 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0.32
Further analyses of these ERG waveforms suggest that aberrant dystrophin expression impairs synaptic transmission specifically between the rod and cone photoreceptor cells and their postsynaptic targets, the bipolar ON cells in the OPL [164].
Positive_regulation (aberrant) of Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in photoreceptor cells
2) Confidence 0.44 Published 2009 Journal Mol Neurobiol Section Body Doc Link PMC2840664 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0
This behavior can be partially rescued by oligonucleotide-mediated exon skipping that facilitates expression of a truncated dystrophin in the brain, not in the muscle [133].
Positive_regulation (facilitates) of Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in muscle
3) Confidence 0.41 Published 2009 Journal Mol Neurobiol Section Body Doc Link PMC2840664 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.05
In recent years, novel gene therapy strategies, such as antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon-skipping, have been directed toward restoring dystrophin expression in muscle fibers of DMD patients [29].
Positive_regulation (restoring) of Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in muscle fibers associated with muscular dystrophy
4) Confidence 0.36 Published 2009 Journal Mol Neurobiol Section Body Doc Link PMC2840664 Disease Relevance 0.81 Pain Relevance 0.03
In contrast, L-arginine treatment has previously been shown to induce utrophin expression in mdx mouse muscle [25], [27].
Positive_regulation (induce) of Gene_expression (expression) of mdx in muscle
5) Confidence 0.35 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2888587 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.13
The mdx groups overexpressing dnMstat demonstrate increased body weight and wet weight of all muscles examined compared to age matched controls (Fig. 4A, C, D).
Positive_regulation (overexpressing) of Gene_expression (overexpressing) of mdx in muscles associated with body weight
6) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820101 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0
Barton et al. examined mdx mice that overexpressed the positive growth factor IGF-I only in skeletal muscle without systemic effects [12].
Positive_regulation (overexpressed) of Gene_expression (overexpressed) of mdx in skeletal muscle
7) Confidence 0.26 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820101 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0
Longer term repeat ESO injections increase dystrophin expression
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin
8) Confidence 0.26 Published 2008 Journal BMC Biotechnol Section Body Doc Link PMC2362111 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
H&E staining confirmed the increased dystrophin expression following repeated injections was not associated with any overt signs of cytotoxicity (Figure 6A).
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin
9) Confidence 0.26 Published 2008 Journal BMC Biotechnol Section Body Doc Link PMC2362111 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
Specifically, membrane-associated nNOS appeared to be expressed only in the mdx muscle cells that also showed enhanced dystrophin expression, indicating that ESO-expressed dystrophin was functionally intact.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in muscle cells
10) Confidence 0.26 Published 2008 Journal BMC Biotechnol Section Body Doc Link PMC2362111 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
Yue et al. showed that direct cardiac injection of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) that delivered a micro-dystrophin gene to 12 hour old neonatal mdx mice was able to cause extensive expression of the micro-dystrophin in both the inner and outer layers of the myocardium even 10 months later [82].
Positive_regulation (cause) of Gene_expression (expression) of micro-dystrophin in myocardium
11) Confidence 0.23 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0
g of ESO complexed with either PEI2K(PEG550)10, NG-PEI2K(PEG550)10, or CG-PEI2K(PEG5K)10 copolymers and were analyzed for dystrophin expression at one week after the third injection.
Positive_regulation (analyzed) of Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin
12) Confidence 0.19 Published 2008 Journal BMC Biotechnol Section Body Doc Link PMC2362111 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
Taken together, the current results suggest that PEG-PEI copolymers enhance dystrophin expression and that repeat injections are more effective at transfecting a greater number of muscle fibers than individual injections containing about the same amount of ESO.
Positive_regulation (enhance) of Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in muscle fibers
13) Confidence 0.19 Published 2008 Journal BMC Biotechnol Section Body Doc Link PMC2362111 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Therefore, we asked whether the current strategy for restoring dystrophin expression increased the level of nNOS protein localized at the myofiber membrane, where it serves to maintain normal cellular function in close association with dystrophin.
Positive_regulation (restoring) of Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin
14) Confidence 0.19 Published 2008 Journal BMC Biotechnol Section Body Doc Link PMC2362111 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Other recent studies of PMOs with conjugated peptide cell-targeting moieties showed impressive numbers of dystrophin-positive fibers, but did not provide a thorough evaluation of dystrophin expression by western blots [12].
Positive_regulation (evaluation) of Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin
15) Confidence 0.19 Published 2008 Journal BMC Biotechnol Section Body Doc Link PMC2362111 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Dystrophin expression following three weekly injections of the PEI2K(PEG550)10-ESO polyplex (5 ?
Positive_regulation (following) of Gene_expression (expression) of Dystrophin
16) Confidence 0.19 Published 2008 Journal BMC Biotechnol Section Body Doc Link PMC2362111 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.04
The goal of this study was to determine an effective PEG-PEI-ESO polyplex formulation and injection scheme for enhanced dystrophin expression after intramuscular injection into the TA muscle of 6–8 wk old male mdx mice.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in muscle
17) Confidence 0.17 Published 2008 Journal BMC Biotechnol Section Body Doc Link PMC2362111 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Induction of dystrophin expression following intramuscular injection of PEG-PEI-ESOs
Positive_regulation (Induction) of Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin
18) Confidence 0.17 Published 2008 Journal BMC Biotechnol Section Body Doc Link PMC2362111 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The number of dystrophin-positive fibers after delivery of 10 ?
Positive_regulation (number) of Gene_expression (number) of dystrophin
19) Confidence 0.16 Published 2008 Journal BMC Biotechnol Section Body Doc Link PMC2362111 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
The number of dystrophin-positive fibers after delivery of 10 ?
Positive_regulation (fibers) of Gene_expression (number) of dystrophin
20) Confidence 0.16 Published 2008 Journal BMC Biotechnol Section Body Doc Link PMC2362111 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04

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