INT218

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1976
Last Reported 2010
Negated 19
Speculated 5
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 245
Total Number 250
Disease Relevance 40.50
Pain Relevance 120.10

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (Th) mitochondrion (Th) nucleus (Th)
response to stress (Th) cytoplasm (Th)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 18
brain 11
PVN 9
ganglia 8
ventral 7
Th (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 474 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 252 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
noradrenaline 212 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Catecholamine 210 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Locus ceruleus 165 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Ventral tegmentum 122 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
medulla 116 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 95 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Substantia nigra 84 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 35 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Toxocariasis 20 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 175 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Heart Rate Under Development 9 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Shock 21 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 32 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
Pressure Volume 2 Under Development 4 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine Dependence 15 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoxia 14 99.38 Very High Very High Very High
Pheochromocytoma 15 99.34 Very High Very High Very High
Hypertension 32 99.28 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in substantia nigra + ventral tegmental area was significantly elevated to about 140% of saline controls both in the "repeated cocaine" and the "acute cocaine" group as compared with the "saline group".
Positive_regulation (elevated) of tyrosine hydroxylase in substantia nigra associated with ventral tegmentum, substantia nigra and cocaine
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 2001 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11284443 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.01
The mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in substantia nigra + ventral tegmental area was significantly elevated to about 140% of saline controls both in the "repeated cocaine" and the "acute cocaine" group as compared with the "saline group".
Positive_regulation (elevated) of TH in substantia nigra associated with ventral tegmentum, substantia nigra and cocaine
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 2001 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11284443 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.00
In rats, paralyzed with succinylcholine and artificially respirated, (-)-sulpiride (10-50 mg/kg) produced a dose-related increase in the firing rate of SN-DA cells and in TH activity.
Positive_regulation (increase) of TH associated with paralysis
3) Confidence 0.70 Published 1983 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 6133578 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.09
Since sulpiride fails to inhibit DA-sensitive adenylate cyclase, it may be concluded that DA receptors, whose blockade results in increased dopaminergic firing and TH activation, are not coupled with this enzyme.
Positive_regulation (activation) of TH
4) Confidence 0.70 Published 1983 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 6133578 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.21
(-)-Sulpiride activates the firing rate and tyrosine hydroxylase activity of dopaminergic neurons in unanesthetized rats.
Positive_regulation (activates) of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic neurons
5) Confidence 0.70 Published 1983 Journal Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 6133578 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.17
In the sympathectomised eyes there was a marked depletion of TH and increase in CGRP immunoreactivity while in tissue subjected to sensory denervation the reverse was found, raised presence of TH and absence of CGRP-immunostaining.
Positive_regulation (increase) of TH in eyes
6) Confidence 0.70 Published 1988 Journal Curr. Eye Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2903010 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.14
TH mRNA in the midbrain was transiently increased by isolation.
Positive_regulation (increased) of TH mRNA in midbrain associated with midbrain
7) Confidence 0.70 Published 1991 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1684631 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.34
Isolation stress increases tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the locus coeruleus and midbrain and decreases proenkephalin mRNA in the striatum and nucleus accumbens.
Positive_regulation (increases) of tyrosine hydroxylase in locus coeruleus associated with stress, nucleus accumbens, locus ceruleus, enkephalin and midbrain
8) Confidence 0.70 Published 1991 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 1684631 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.42
Tyrosine hydroxylase activity increased progressively in neuron-enriched cultures but was not detectable in glial cultures.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (increased) of Tyrosine hydroxylase in neuron
9) Confidence 0.70 Published 1987 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 2433398 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.26
Taken together these results suggest an increased number of NE terminals and an increase in the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase.
Positive_regulation (increase) of tyrosine hydroxylase
10) Confidence 0.70 Published 1987 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2890404 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.68
Correlation between the increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity and the decrease in serotonin content in the rat locus coeruleus after 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine.
Positive_regulation (increase) of tyrosine hydroxylase in locus coeruleus associated with locus ceruleus and serotonin
11) Confidence 0.70 Published 1979 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Title Doc Link 41727 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.36
A correlation is demonstrated between the increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity and the decrease in serotonin concentration in the rat locus coeruleus after various doses of 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine and gradual protection of serotonin neurons by pretreatment with two serotonin uptake inhibitors: fluoxetine or citalopram.
Positive_regulation (increase) of tyrosine hydroxylase in serotonin neurons associated with locus ceruleus, serotonin and fluoxetine
12) Confidence 0.70 Published 1979 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 41727 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.36
The induction of tyrosine hydroxylase after morphine exposure was also reduced in locus coeruleus when agmatine was administered along with morphine.
Positive_regulation (induction) of tyrosine hydroxylase in locus coeruleus associated with locus ceruleus and morphine
13) Confidence 0.70 Published 2004 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 15541421 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 1.57
The role of sodium influx mediated by nicotinic receptors as an initial event in trans-synaptic induction of tyrosine hydroxylase in adrenergic neurons.
Positive_regulation (induction) of tyrosine hydroxylase in adrenergic neurons
14) Confidence 0.70 Published 1980 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Title Doc Link 6107866 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.20
The effects of dopamine, chlorisondamine and tetrodotoxin on the carbachol-induced 22Na uptake into superior cervical ganglia are similar to their effects on carbachol-mediated induction of tyrosine hydroxylase in superior cervical ganglia kept in tissue culture (Thoenen and Otten 1977b).
Positive_regulation (induction) of tyrosine hydroxylase in superior associated with tetrodotoxin and dopamine
15) Confidence 0.70 Published 1980 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 6107866 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.34
It is concluded that the induction of tyrosine hydroxylase via nicotinic receptors is closely linked to the enhanced sodium influx into the adrenergic neurons mediated by the same receptors.
Positive_regulation (induction) of tyrosine hydroxylase in adrenergic neurons
16) Confidence 0.70 Published 1980 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 6107866 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.31
Our previous work illustrated gradual accumulation of mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis and the neuropeptide transmitter proenkephalin (ppEnk) in butyrate-differentiated PC12 cells (Nankova, B.B., Chua, J., Mishra, R., Kobasiuk, C.D., La Gamma, E.F. 2003.
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of tyrosine hydroxylase associated with catecholamine and neuropeptide
17) Confidence 0.70 Published 2007 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 17174279 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.21
By using nuclear run-on assays, we found that transcription increased for both endogenous TH and ppEnk genes, even at time points and concentrations when reduced steady-state levels of TH mRNA were observed.
Positive_regulation (increased) of TH
18) Confidence 0.70 Published 2007 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 17174279 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.18
Our previous work illustrated gradual accumulation of mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis and the neuropeptide transmitter proenkephalin (ppEnk) in butyrate-differentiated PC12 cells (Nankova, B.B., Chua, J., Mishra, R., Kobasiuk, C.D., La Gamma, E.F. 2003.
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of TH associated with catecholamine and neuropeptide
19) Confidence 0.70 Published 2007 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 17174279 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.21
Ninety min after naloxone administration to morphine-dependent rats there was an increase in phospho-Ser40-TH (139.0 +/- 13%, P < 0.05) and Ser31-TH (135.5 +/- 11%, P < 0.05) in the left ventricle which is associated with both an increase in total TH levels (114.4 +/- 4.6%, P < 0.05, P < 0.01) and an enhancement of TH activity (51.0 +/- 11 dm/microg protein, P < 0.001).
Positive_regulation (enhancement) of TH in ventricle associated with narcan and morphine
20) Confidence 0.69 Published 2009 Journal Basic Res. Cardiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19104749 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 1.16

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