INT22194

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Context Info
Confidence 0.75
First Reported 1990
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 20
Total Number 20
Disease Relevance 10.03
Pain Relevance 2.83

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (Xdh) oxidoreductase activity (Xdh) extracellular region (Xdh)
peroxisome (Xdh) cytoplasm (Xdh)
Anatomy Link Frequency
muscle 3
reticulum 2
liver 1
skeletal muscle 1
astrocytes 1
Xdh (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
adenocard 8 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
ischemia 68 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
anesthesia 18 99.26 Very High Very High Very High
dexamethasone 14 97.68 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 143 95.88 Very High Very High Very High
Bioavailability 8 95.44 Very High Very High Very High
Mechanotransduction 6 94.44 High High
Inflammatory response 57 88.92 High High
tolerance 61 83.44 Quite High
chemokine 45 78.88 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cv Unclassified Under Development 133 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Stroke 82 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Increased Venous Pressure Under Development 27 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 262 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Toxicity 17 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperlipidemia 16 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
Chronic Renal Failure 64 97.88 Very High Very High Very High
Hypertension 18 97.48 Very High Very High Very High
Amyloid Plaque 20 97.24 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 160 96.44 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The predominant sources of superoxide in vascular cells are NADPH oxidases (11), whereas less significant amounts of superoxide are produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), xanthine oxidase, cytochrome P450, and cyclooxygenase activity (10).
Gene_expression (produced) of xanthine oxidase
1) Confidence 0.75 Published 2008 Journal The Journal of Experimental Medicine Section Body Doc Link PMC2605224 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.15
One of the ways nNOS-derived NO is thought to be cardioprotective is simply by acting as an anti-oxidant, scavenging ROS species produced by XOR in the heart during disease states [38].
Gene_expression (produced) of XOR in heart associated with disease
2) Confidence 0.54 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2680977 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0
ROS produced by XOR can depress myocardial contractility by inhibiting contractile myofilament responsiveness to Ca+2.
Gene_expression (produced) of XOR
3) Confidence 0.54 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2680977 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0
Hellsten et al. (18) first showed that XO is an important source of ROS generation during exercise and demonstrated that a chronic exercise protocol increased XO activity in human muscle.
Gene_expression (source) of XO in muscle
4) Confidence 0.29 Published 2010 Journal American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology Section Body Doc Link PMC2806206 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.03
We conclude that XO is a source of the elevated superoxide anion detected in skeletal muscle extracellular space during nondamaging contractions, since intravenous administration of oxypurinol prevented the contraction-induced increase in cytochrome c reduction in microdialysates from the gastrocnemius muscle.
Gene_expression (source) of XO in skeletal muscle
5) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology Section Body Doc Link PMC2806206 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
After general anesthesia, cremaster muscle was collected for analysis of XO and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) activities.
Gene_expression (analysis) of XO in muscle associated with anesthesia
6) Confidence 0.20 Published 2003 Journal Microvasc. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 12826072 Disease Relevance 0.68 Pain Relevance 0.29
Although in the cremaster muscle the total XO + XDH levels were not completely reduced with ALLO, the XO levels of the dexamethasone-treated + ALLO rats were reduced to levels of the control + ALLO group.
Gene_expression (levels) of XO in muscle associated with dexamethasone
7) Confidence 0.18 Published 2003 Journal Microvasc. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 12826072 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.38
Normal cellular function and metabolism results in the production of intracellular ROS from multiple cellular sources, including mitochondrial electron transport, xanthine oxidase, peroxisomes, and the endoplasmic reticulum [57].
Gene_expression (production) of xanthine oxidase in reticulum
8) Confidence 0.16 Published 2008 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2604892 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.16
Normal cellular function and metabolism results in the production of intracellular ROS from multiple cellular sources, including mitochondrial electron transport, xanthine oxidase, peroxisomes, and the endoplasmic reticulum [57].
Gene_expression (sources) of xanthine oxidase in reticulum
9) Confidence 0.16 Published 2008 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2604892 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.16
For example, Ang II activates NAD(P)H oxidases and xanthine oxidase producing reactive oxygen species such as peroxynitrite, superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, which reduce nitric oxide bioavailability and contribute to endothelial dysfunction [23].
Gene_expression (producing) of xanthine oxidase associated with bioavailability
10) Confidence 0.11 Published 2010 Journal Cardiovasc Drugs Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2887501 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0.20
The key radical after stroke is superoxide anion, produced by xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase.
Gene_expression (produced) of xanthine oxidase associated with stroke
11) Confidence 0.07 Published 2010 Journal J Neuroinflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2988764 Disease Relevance 0.99 Pain Relevance 0.34
Conversion of the non-free radical generating xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) to the free radical producing XO during ischemia has been demonstrated in several tissues.
Gene_expression (producing) of XO associated with ischemia
12) Confidence 0.06 Published 1990 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2260692 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0.45
The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of erdosteine, an antioxidant agent, on doxorubicin (DXR)-induced cardio-toxicity through nitric oxide (NO) levels, collagen synthesis, xanthine oxidase (XO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in rats.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of XO associated with toxicity and adenocard
13) Confidence 0.05 Published 2003 Journal Toxicology Section Abstract Doc Link 12965118 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.16
A source of this O2 - may be xanthine oxidase.
Gene_expression (source) of xanthine oxidase
14) Confidence 0.05 Published 2003 Journal Cardiovasc Diabetol Section Body Doc Link PMC212422 Disease Relevance 1.04 Pain Relevance 0.12
The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of erdosteine, an antioxidant agent, on doxorubicin (DXR)-induced cardio-toxicity through nitric oxide (NO) levels, collagen synthesis, xanthine oxidase (XO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in rats.
Gene_expression (activities) of XO associated with toxicity and adenocard
15) Confidence 0.04 Published 2003 Journal Toxicology Section Abstract Doc Link 12965118 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.17
Several potential sources of ROS exist within microglia and astrocytes including the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, mitochondria respiratory chain, xanthine oxidase, microsomal enzymes, cycloxygenase and lipoxygenase.
Gene_expression (sources) of xanthine oxidase in microglia
16) Confidence 0.04 Published 2006 Journal J Neuroinflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC1637099 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.09
The sources of these reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) have been identified to be NADPH oxidases, mitochondria, xanthine oxidase, as well as an uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) [6–8].
Gene_expression (sources) of xanthine oxidase
17) Confidence 0.04 Published 2010 Journal Experimental Diabetes Research Section Body Doc Link PMC3014692 Disease Relevance 1.64 Pain Relevance 0
Although some may be produced by xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase, it is probable that most is formed by complex 1 and complex 3 of the respiratory chain [26,28–30].
Gene_expression (produced) of xanthine oxidase in respiratory
18) Confidence 0.04 Published 2007 Journal Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Section Body Doc Link PMC2212780 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.03
In contrast, the serum LDL-cholesterol levels and liver xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in WJ diet groups were significantly decreased.
Gene_expression (levels) of XO in liver
19) Confidence 0.03 Published 2010 Journal Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2892354 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0
Several potential sources of ROS exist within microglia and astrocytes including the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, mitochondria respiratory chain, xanthine oxidase, microsomal enzymes, cycloxygenase and lipoxygenase.
Gene_expression (sources) of xanthine oxidase in astrocytes
20) Confidence 0.01 Published 2006 Journal J Neuroinflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC1637099 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.09

General Comments

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