INT2229

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Context Info
Confidence 0.69
First Reported 1979
Last Reported 2004
Negated 2
Speculated 2
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 50
Total Number 52
Disease Relevance 7.47
Pain Relevance 30.33

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

carbohydrate metabolic process (Man2a2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
locus coeruleus 3
neurons 3
nerve 3
jaw 2
amygdala 2
Man2a2 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
antagonist 67 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Locus ceruleus 29 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
tolerance 8 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Clonidine 167 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Analgesic 23 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 34 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
MU agonist 4 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
analgesia 3 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 87 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Potency 7 99.50 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Thyroid Disease 16 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Bordatella Infection 2 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropathic Pain 8 99.18 Very High Very High Very High
Anxiety Disorder 9 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 4 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
Increased Venous Pressure Under Development 15 98.88 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 19 98.60 Very High Very High Very High
Sprains And Strains 6 96.84 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 3 94.28 High High
Stress 7 94.20 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
We reported previously that activation of alpha-2 adrenoceptors with infusions of clonidine into the amygdala/pyriform region is sufficient to retard kindling.
Positive_regulation (activation) of alpha-2 in amygdala associated with amygdala and clonidine
1) Confidence 0.69 Published 1993 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7908598 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.42
The results obtained indicate that clonidine exerts a dual effect on salivary secretion: at high doses it elicits salivation through activation of alpha 1-adrenoceptors; at the dose of 10 micrograms/kg clonidine activates alpha 2-adrenoceptors which inhibit the secretory response evoked through either muscarine, substance P and alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists.
Positive_regulation (activates) of alpha 2 associated with agonist, substance p and clonidine
2) Confidence 0.69 Published 1984 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 6207441 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.95
Previous results from our laboratory indicate that small doses of the alpha-2 adrenergic agonist clonidine increase serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission by attenuating the release of endogenous norepinephrine (NE), as a result of the activation of alpha-2 adrenergic autoreceptors on NE neurons, and that high doses decrease 5-HT neurotransmission by activating directly alpha-2 adrenergic heteroreceptors on 5-HT terminals.
Positive_regulation (activation) of alpha-2 in neurons associated with agonist, serotonin and clonidine
3) Confidence 0.66 Published 1994 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 7912278 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.48
Radioligand receptor studies show that alpha-methylnoradrenaline differs from noradrenaline in being much more selective (70 times) for the alpha 2 subclass of adrenoceptors than noradrenaline and it is likely that the antihypertensive action of methyldopa results from selective activation of alpha 2 adrenoceptors by alpha-methylnoradrenaline in the nucleus tractus solitarius and the anterior hypothalamus.
Positive_regulation (activation) of alpha 2 in anterior associated with noradrenaline
4) Confidence 0.63 Published 1984 Journal Clin Exp Hypertens A Section Abstract Doc Link 6321066 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.58
It is proposed that clonidine modulates jaw-opening reflex analgesia by specifically activating alpha 2-adrenoceptors.
Positive_regulation (activating) of alpha 2 in jaw associated with analgesia and clonidine
5) Confidence 0.60 Published 1986 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 3005019 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.79
The possible contribution of feedback mechanisms triggered by activation of postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors and mediated via local (to terminals) circuits (or a putative humoral agent released postsynaptically) was eliminated subsequently by a local injection of ibotenic acid in noradrenergic projection areas.
Positive_regulation (activation) of alpha-2
6) Confidence 0.60 Published 1987 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 3027307 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.40
Clonidine inhibits salivary secretion by activation of postsynaptic alpha 2-receptors.
Positive_regulation (activation) of alpha 2 associated with clonidine
7) Confidence 0.60 Published 1984 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Title Doc Link 6207441 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.89
The elevation induced by desipramine in fluoxetine-treated rats does not seem to involve changes in the activation of alpha-2 adrenoceptors, as it was still present in rats pretreated with 0.2 mg/kg i.p. of RX-821002, a selective antagonist of alpha-2 adrenoceptors.
Positive_regulation (activation) of alpha-2 associated with desipramine, antagonist and fluoxetine
8) Confidence 0.60 Published 1996 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 8819487 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0.83
These data indicate the response elicited by the isolated rat THAL to NE is dependent on the neurotransmitter concentration, such that application of NE in vitro biphasically modulates J(Cl) via differential activation of alpha-2 and beta-adrenergic receptors in a concentration-dependent manner.
Positive_regulation (activation) of alpha-2 in THAL associated with neurotransmitter
9) Confidence 0.59 Published 2001 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11507016 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.33
We interpret the data to indicate that endogenous norepinephrine suppresses kindling development by activation of postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors.
Positive_regulation (activation) of alpha-2
10) Confidence 0.58 Published 1987 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 2885413 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.68
This suggested that the activation of spinal alpha 2 receptor may reduce the sympathetic outflow and this reduction of sympathetic outflow may be the key mechanism that delays the development of thermal hyperesthesia.


Positive_regulation (activation) of alpha 2 in outflow
11) Confidence 0.55 Published 1996 Journal Anesthesiology Section Body Doc Link 8873554 Disease Relevance 0.11 Pain Relevance 0
Activation of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors significantly increased basal gastric tone and reduced the amplitude of phasic contractions.
Positive_regulation (Activation) of alpha-2
12) Confidence 0.50 Published 1991 Journal Acta Physiol. Scand. Section Abstract Doc Link 1683093 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0.48
Alternatively, stimulation of alpha 2-or blockade of alpha 1-adrenoceptors results in diminished sexual motivation.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of alpha 2-or
13) Confidence 0.50 Published 1985 Journal Neuroendocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 2991794 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.25
We hypothesized that the anxiolytic-like actions of clonidine could be mimicked by stimulation of alpha-2 receptors on the mesoprefrontal dopamine neurons.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of alpha-2 in dopamine neurons associated with dopamine, anxiety disorder and clonidine
14) Confidence 0.50 Published 2004 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 15494168 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.64
Clonidine inhibited, through the activation of alpha 2 presynaptic receptors, the release of [3H]noradrenaline (pIC30 = 7.47) and [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine (pIC30 = 6.47) evoked by 15 mM KCl from superfused rat cerebral cortex synaptosomes.
Positive_regulation (activation) of alpha 2 in cerebral cortex associated with noradrenaline, cerebral cortex and clonidine
15) Confidence 0.50 Published 1985 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2990964 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.59
Further, the high concentrations of alpha 2 binding sites in pontine and limbic areas such as the locus coeruleus, parabrachial nucleus, dorsal raphe, hypothalamus, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, septum and entorhinal cortex offer an anatomical basis for understanding the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions of drugs like clonidine.
Positive_regulation (concentrations) of alpha 2 in hypothalamus associated with antidepressant, locus ceruleus, anxiety disorder, amygdala, raphe, clonidine and parabrachial
16) Confidence 0.50 Published 1985 Journal Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. Section Abstract Doc Link 2989949 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.57
Evidence that exogenous but not endogenous norepinephrine activates the presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors on serotonergic nerve endings in the rat hypothalamus.
Positive_regulation (activates) of alpha-2 in hypothalamus
17) Confidence 0.50 Published 1984 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Title Doc Link 6323679 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.34
These data suggest that the combination of neuropathic surgery and sympathectomy results in an upregulation of active alpha-2 adrenergic receptors on the undamaged sensory axons that provide the remaining sensory innervation to a neuropathic area partially denervated by segmental nerve lesions.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of alpha-2 in segmental nerve associated with neuropathic pain
18) Confidence 0.49 Published 1999 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 10342420 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.52
However since neither idazoxan (100 micrograms) or atipamezole (50 micrograms, another antagonist) influenced the potency of spinal morphine, the increased alpha-2 adrenergic activity in inflammation does not contribute to the enhanced potency of spinal morphine.
Positive_regulation (increased) of alpha-2 in spinal associated with inflammation, antagonist, morphine and potency
19) Confidence 0.47 Published 1994 Journal Neuroreport Section Abstract Doc Link 8003677 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 1.10
Furthermore, the increased aortic contractile responses induced by norepinephrine and selective alpha-2 agonists are due probably to an increased influx of extracellular calcium through nifedipine-sensitive ion channels associated with activation of alpha-2 adrenoceptors.
Positive_regulation (activation) of alpha-2 associated with agonist
20) Confidence 0.47 Published 1984 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 6094794 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.27

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