INT224964

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Context Info
Confidence 0.59
First Reported 2008
Last Reported 2011
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 30
Total Number 40
Disease Relevance 7.71
Pain Relevance 8.77

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ghrl) extracellular region (Ghrl) cytoplasm (Ghrl)
Anatomy Link Frequency
pancreas 2
vesicles 2
vagus nerve 1
brain 1
gastric fundus 1
Ghrl (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 803 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Ventral tegmentum 756 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 736 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 41 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
nMDA receptor 66 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 88 98.60 Very High Very High Very High
nMDA receptor antagonist 33 98.20 Very High Very High Very High
vagus nerve 26 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
Endocannabinoid 35 97.20 Very High Very High Very High
Eae 202 96.16 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Salivary Gland Disease 16 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperinsulinism 132 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 81 98.56 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 394 97.40 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 696 96.36 Very High Very High Very High
Appetite Loss 75 95.60 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 11 93.64 High High
Lipodystrophy 13 92.96 High High
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Or Hiv Infection 13 92.40 High High
Impaired Glucose Tolerance 262 92.36 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Electron microscopy analyses of ghrelin in secretory vesicles, while revealing, would not provide conclusive evidence that ghrelin is actually secreted from the TCs during taste perception.
Localization (secreted) of ghrelin in vesicles
1) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
In addition, ghrelin and GHSR co-localize in the same taste cells, suggesting that ghrelin works in an autocrine manner in taste cells.
Localization (localize) of ghrelin
2) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Future studies are needed that may definitely demonstrate that ghrelin (and other additional hormones expressed in TCs) is released from TCs.
Localization (released) of ghrelin
3) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.08
We found that GOAT and ghrelin are co-localized in many, but not all, taste cells.
Localization (localized) of ghrelin
4) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.06
Finally, ghrelin-induced locomotor stimulation as well as accumbal dopamine release were suppressed by VTA administration of an NMDA receptor antagonist (AP5).
Localization (release) of ghrelin associated with ventral tegmentum, nmda receptor antagonist, dopamine and antagonist
5) Confidence 0.54 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.05
In the present study, it was shown that ventral tegmental NMDA receptors are required for ghrelin-induced locomotor stimulation and accumbal dopamine release.
Localization (release) of ghrelin in ventral associated with dopamine and nmda receptor
6) Confidence 0.54 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.62
In addition, ghrelin and GHSR co-localize in the same taste cells, suggesting that ghrelin works in an autocrine manner in taste cells.
Localization (localize) of ghrelin
7) Confidence 0.52 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Ghrelin has also been shown to be produced by human salivary glands and is secreted into saliva [23].
Localization (secreted) of Ghrelin in saliva associated with salivary gland disease
8) Confidence 0.52 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0
Previously, however, we found that only ‘on-target’ placements (in the VTA and LDTg but not in closely adjacent sites) resulted in significant effects of ghrelin or GHS-R1A antagonists on locomotor stimulation and dopamine release using a larger volume (1 µl) for mice (Jerlhag et al. 2007, 2009).
Localization (release) of ghrelin associated with ventral tegmentum, dopamine and antagonist
9) Confidence 0.51 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.49
Supportively, in the present study neither AP5 nor BIM28163 blocked ghrelin-induced locomotor stimulation nor accumbal dopamine release in a few mice in which the canulae were misplaced in neighbouring structures (data not shown).
Localization (release) of ghrelin associated with dopamine and antagonist
10) Confidence 0.51 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.51
In summary, the present study shows that the effects of peripheral ghrelin on locomotor stimulation and accumbal dopamine release in mice (that reflect direct actions of ghrelin at the level of the mesolimbic dopamine system, specifically the VTA) can be suppressed by an NMDA antagonist and are therefore likely to be under glutamatergic control.
Localization (release) of ghrelin associated with ventral tegmentum, dopamine and antagonist
11) Confidence 0.51 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.72
Effects of intra-VTA administration of a GHS-R1A antagonist on ghrelin-induced locomotor stimulation and accumbal dopamine release in mice
Localization (release) of ghrelin associated with ventral tegmentum, dopamine and antagonist
12) Confidence 0.48 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.47
Intra-VTA administration of AP5 also suppressed the ghrelin-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.
Localization (release) of ghrelin in nucleus accumbens associated with nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmentum, dopamine and antagonist
13) Confidence 0.48 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Abstract Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 1.16
Electron microscopy analyses of ghrelin in secretory vesicles, while revealing, would not provide conclusive evidence that ghrelin is actually secreted from the TCs during taste perception.
Localization (secreted) of ghrelin in vesicles
14) Confidence 0.45 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0
In separte experiments, the effects of i.p. administered ghrelin on locomotor stimulation was investigated following intra-VTA administration of BIM28163, AP5 or SB334867 to mice.
Localization (administration) of ghrelin associated with ventral tegmentum and antagonist
15) Confidence 0.44 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.47
Future studies will be needed to address the mechanisms of action of ghrelin at the median eminence, characterized by its abundance of fenestrated blood vessels.
Localization (action) of ghrelin in blood vessels
16) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Much later in life, aged individuals retain ghrelin-induced GH secretion as well as GHSR expression in the brain [4], [36].
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin in brain
17) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.10
Ghrelin, the endogenous growth hormone secretagogue [3], [4], is one such hypothalamic input.
Localization (secretagogue) of Ghrelin
18) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
Because GHRH neurons are such a small population [2], [29], a GHRH releasing agent such as ghrelin (or ghrelin mimetics) might trigger synchronisation between GHRH neurons [15].
Localization (releasing) of ghrelin in neurons
19) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
First, the role of GHS-R1A receptors in the VTA for the reinforcing effects of ghrelin by tests of ghrelin-induced locomotor stimulation and, in separate studies, by measurement of ghrelin-induced dopamine release were investigated.
Localization (release) of ghrelin associated with ventral tegmentum and dopamine
20) Confidence 0.41 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.50

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