INT226105

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Context Info
Confidence 0.50
First Reported 2008
Last Reported 2011
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 10
Total Number 11
Disease Relevance 2.36
Pain Relevance 2.26

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ghrl) extracellular region (Ghrl) cytoplasm (Ghrl)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 5
pancreatic islet 1
Ghrl (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 146 98.84 Very High Very High Very High
Endocannabinoid 35 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
Ventral tegmentum 136 97.36 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 200 93.56 High High
Calcium channel 31 91.40 High High
opioid receptor 16 90.44 High High
tolerance 78 88.88 High High
TRP channel 3 87.32 High High
alcohol 14 85.00 Quite High
Cannabinoid 33 80.88 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Lipodystrophy 4 98.60 Very High Very High Very High
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Or Hiv Infection 4 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
Renal Failure 8 95.72 Very High Very High Very High
Myocardial Infarction 4 95.12 Very High Very High Very High
Malignant Neoplastic Disease 4 94.08 High High
Appetite Loss 26 93.28 High High
Insulin Resistance 74 89.08 High High
Impaired Glucose Tolerance 82 88.88 High High
Liver Failure 8 88.72 High High
Obesity 212 87.68 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Circulating ghrelin levels are modulated by changes in nutritional status, such as food deprivation [8] or exposure to HFD [9,10].
Regulation (modulated) of ghrelin
1) Confidence 0.50 Published 2011 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC3024223 Disease Relevance 0.55 Pain Relevance 0.04
Orexin-containing neurons have previously been suggested to regulate ghrelin-induced feeding (Toshinai et al. 2003), but orexin A receptors do not appear to be crucial for the locomotor stimulatory effects of ghrelin.
Regulation (regulate) of ghrelin in neurons
2) Confidence 0.30 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.53
Since in the hypothalamus ghrelin preferentially stimulated the synthesis of 2-AG, the endocannabinoid that primarily acts in the excitatory synapses [29], we have studied the influence of ghrelin on the excitatory input of parvocellular neurons in the PVN.
Regulation (influence) of ghrelin in neurons associated with endocannabinoid
3) Confidence 0.27 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2258435 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.30
Moreover, an important premise for the study is that the afferents regulate ghrelin's effects on the mesolimbic dopamine system involving GHS-R1A in VTA.
Regulation (regulate) of ghrelin associated with ventral tegmentum and dopamine
4) Confidence 0.27 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.94
At present, ghrelin is the only peripheral orexigenic factor that is effective upon its intravenous administration [81].
Regulation (effective) of ghrelin
5) Confidence 0.22 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.04
Besides the experiments carry out in vivo, there are works with cellular cultures and pancreatic perfusion that contribute to our knowledge about ghrelin role on glucose and insulin metabolism, pointing to a role for ghrelin in the pancreatic islet.
Regulation (role) of ghrelin in pancreatic islet
6) Confidence 0.19 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
To diminish the influence of GH, Vestergaard et al. investigate the effects of prolonged ghrelin infusion (not a unique dose) on insulin sensitivity [76] which decreased after few minutes of ghrelin infusion and outlasted both the infusion period and the postinfusion interval.
Spec (investigate) Regulation (effects) of ghrelin
7) Confidence 0.19 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.07
Future work will dissect out the molecular events linking membrane and internal targets of ghrelin, notably mitochondria, in GHRH neurons [42].
Regulation (targets) of ghrelin in neurons
8) Confidence 0.16 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.22
For a comparison, GHSR is expressed in both GH cells and GHRH neurons [1], [4], but the effects of ghrelin are not identical in both these cell types.
Regulation (effects) of ghrelin in neurons
9) Confidence 0.16 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Thus, the ghrelin responsiveness observed at different developmental stages in GHRH neurons, was compatible with the profile of GHSR expression in the brain [34]–[36].


Regulation (responsiveness) of ghrelin in neurons
10) Confidence 0.14 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
In Table 8 we summarize putative ghrelin effects on glucose-insulin homeostasis and related physiological actions.
Regulation (effects) of ghrelin
11) Confidence 0.13 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 1.26 Pain Relevance 0.03

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