INT226106

From wiki-pain
Jump to: navigation, search
Context Info
Confidence 0.40
First Reported 2008
Last Reported 2011
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 12
Total Number 17
Disease Relevance 3.98
Pain Relevance 5.39

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ghrl) extracellular region (Ghrl) cytoplasm (Ghrl)
Anatomy Link Frequency
liver 1
neurons 1
midbrain 1
body 1
Ghrl (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 440 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Ventral tegmentum 408 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
midbrain 6 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 424 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
tolerance 148 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
nMDA receptor antagonist 18 98.84 Very High Very High Very High
alcohol 43 98.66 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 48 98.60 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate receptor 2 96.52 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 50 90.20 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Liver Failure 16 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 245 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Impaired Glucose Tolerance 165 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 458 97.28 Very High Very High Very High
Insulin Resistance 149 87.40 High High
Obesity 413 84.24 Quite High
Hyperphagia 21 83.28 Quite High
Hypoglycemia 20 69.52 Quite High
Injury 5 67.08 Quite High
Hyperinsulinism 84 64.96 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Indeed, alcohol reinforcement was absent in pharmacological and genetic models of suppressed ghrelin signalling (Jerlhag et al. 2009).
Negative_regulation (suppressed) of ghrelin associated with alcohol
1) Confidence 0.40 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.69
Finally, ghrelin-induced locomotor stimulation as well as accumbal dopamine release were suppressed by VTA administration of an NMDA receptor antagonist (AP5).
Negative_regulation (suppressed) of ghrelin associated with ventral tegmentum, nmda receptor antagonist, dopamine and antagonist
2) Confidence 0.29 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.06
Specifically, the ghrelin-induced locomotor stimulation (P < 0.01) was attenuated by VTA administration of AP5 (P < 0.001) in mice (F(3,27) = 8.06, P < 0.001: n = 7-8).
Negative_regulation (attenuated) of ghrelin associated with ventral tegmentum and antagonist
3) Confidence 0.29 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.88
Thus, the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on GHRH neurons occurs in both sexes.
Negative_regulation (effect) of ghrelin in neurons
4) Confidence 0.26 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.10
In the present study, it was demonstrated that the actions of peripheral ghrelin on the midbrain dopamine system, reflected by locomotor stimulation and accumbal dopamine release, can be blocked by VTA administration of a GHS-R1A antagonist.
Negative_regulation (blocked) of ghrelin in midbrain associated with ventral tegmentum, dopamine, antagonist and midbrain
5) Confidence 0.25 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.89
After the baseline samples, the antagonist (AP5 or BIM28163) was administered locally into the VTA followed subsequently by a ghrelin (i.p.) injection.
Negative_regulation (injection) of ghrelin associated with ventral tegmentum and antagonist
6) Confidence 0.25 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.38
In summary, the present study shows that the effects of peripheral ghrelin on locomotor stimulation and accumbal dopamine release in mice (that reflect direct actions of ghrelin at the level of the mesolimbic dopamine system, specifically the VTA) can be suppressed by an NMDA antagonist and are therefore likely to be under glutamatergic control.
Negative_regulation (suppressed) of ghrelin associated with ventral tegmentum, dopamine and antagonist
7) Confidence 0.25 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.74
Hence ghrelin inhibition could be useful for the treatment of diabetes [152, 153].
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of ghrelin associated with diabetes mellitus
8) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0
Ghrelin decreased the amplitude of the pulses to 86.46±2.86% of the control (control ?
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Ghrelin
9) Confidence 0.23 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2258435 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.10
Wortley et al. found a trend toward decreased weight and leaner body composition in male ghrelin knockout mice after 6 weeks on the HFD, which could be explained by a decrease in RQ observed only in these animals; therefore the constitutive absence of ghrelin causes a distinct shift toward lipid metabolism during consumption of an HFD [103].

3.2.3.

Negative_regulation (absence) of ghrelin in body associated with targeted disruption
10) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.88 Pain Relevance 0.11
The results of GTTs and ITTs were similar to those previously observed for the same authors with pharmacological blockade of ghrelin action [58], reinforcing the concept that endogenous ghrelin serves as a regulator of insulin release and of glycemia.
Negative_regulation (blockade) of ghrelin
11) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0.05
All the more hepatic vagotomy or coinfusion with atropine methyl bromide (a muscarinic antagonist) diminished the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [70].
Negative_regulation (effect) of ghrelin associated with antagonist
12) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.12
Mice deficient in either ghrelin, GHSR, or both showed lower glucose peak levels at a single time point (15 minutes after the injection) suggesting a slightly faster release of insulin.
Negative_regulation (deficient) of ghrelin
13) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0.09
expression with siRNA provoked that the inhibitory effects of ghrelin or overexpression of IA-2?
Negative_regulation (effects) of ghrelin
14) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.03
Recently ghrelin levels have been found decreased in liver failure patients [101], a clinical condition with altered nutrition and glucose homeostasis.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of ghrelin in liver associated with liver failure
15) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0
In normal mice blockade of endogenous ghrelin by intraperitoneal injection of modified GHRP-6 markedly lowered fasting glucose concentrations in a few hours.
Negative_regulation (blockade) of ghrelin
16) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.16
Inactivation of prohormone convertase 1/3 (a preproghrelin endopeptidase) also increases ghrelin gene transcripts, suggesting negative feedback by ghrelin on its own transcription [496].
Negative_regulation (Inactivation) of preproghrelin
17) Confidence 0.10 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0

General Comments

This test has worked.

Personal tools
Namespaces

Variants
Actions
Navigation
Toolbox