INT226114

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Context Info
Confidence 0.36
First Reported 2008
Last Reported 2011
Negated 2
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 18
Total Number 21
Disease Relevance 4.34
Pain Relevance 3.54

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ghrl) extracellular region (Ghrl) cytoplasm (Ghrl)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 2
brain 2
hypothalamus 1
fat 1
adipocyte 1
Ghrl (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cannabinoid 233 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 30 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 148 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
Ventral tegmentum 137 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 330 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 62 94.76 High High
Cannabinoid receptor 7 94.24 High High
Endocannabinoid 245 93.56 High High
Neurotransmitter 11 91.48 High High
Somatostatin 62 89.84 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Obesity 429 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Appetite Loss 80 98.36 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 329 92.88 High High
Weight Gain 14 89.56 High High
Diabetes Mellitus 159 89.04 High High
Carcinoid 8 88.44 High High
Weight Loss 7 87.20 High High
Hypoglycemia 14 86.20 High High
Body Weight 66 84.92 Quite High
Syndrome 9 84.48 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In addition, they were observed to have lower serum leptin and elevated ghrelin levels, where leptin is known to act as an appetite suppressant, whereas ghrelin seems to stimulate hunger.25
ghrelin Binding (have) of
1) Confidence 0.36 Published 2010 Journal Int J Gen Med Section Body Doc Link PMC2990395 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0
Firstly, TCs express both ghrelin and its receptor.
ghrelin Binding (receptor) of
2) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.29
Ghrelin, a gastric hormone, exerts orexigenic and pro-obesity effects by interacting with key brain circuits involved in appetite and energy balance (Tschöp, Smiley & Heiman 2000; Wren et al. 2000; Cummings et al. 2001; Nakazato et al. 2001).
Ghrelin Binding (interacting) of in brain associated with obesity
3) Confidence 0.24 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.19
Ghrelin did not affect AMPK activity in CB1-KO hypothalamus, and pre-administration of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant blocked the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on AMPK activity, indicating that the ghrelin-AMPK interaction requires an intact cannabinoid signaling system in the hypothalamus.
ghrelin-AMPK Binding (interaction) of in hypothalamus associated with cannabinoid and antagonist
4) Confidence 0.23 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2258435 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.31
Rimonabant co-administration with ghrelin prevented the ghrelin-induced increase in 2-AG levels (79.8±10.2% of control, Kruskal-Wallis test, n?
ghrelin Binding (administration) of
5) Confidence 0.23 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2258435 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
We have investigated the interaction between ghrelin and the cannabinoid systems on the mechanisms underlying appetite regulation by in vivo studies using rimonabant, a known antagonist of CB1, and by a genetic approach using CB1-knockout (CB1-KO) mice; we have also utilized an in vitro electrophysiological system to study the interaction of the two systems on parvocellular neurons of the PVN of mice.
ghrelin Binding (interaction) of in neurons associated with targeted disruption, appetite loss, antagonist and cannabinoid
6) Confidence 0.23 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2258435 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.33
We have recently demonstrated that there is an interaction between ghrelin and cannabinoid-related actions, as sub-anorectic doses of rimonabant can inhibit the orexigenic effect of ghrelin injected focally into the PVN [6].
ghrelin Binding (interaction) of associated with appetite loss and cannabinoid
7) Confidence 0.23 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2258435 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.31
Ghrelin directly activated GHRH neurons, and this modulation obviously concerns the GH axis, and does not require NPY neurons involved in feeding.
Ghrelin Binding (activated) of in neurons
8) Confidence 0.22 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The mechanisms for the interaction between ghrelin, acetylcholine and glutamate in the VTA are still unclear.
ghrelin Binding (interaction) of associated with ventral tegmentum and glutamate
9) Confidence 0.22 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.83
Further studies are needed to determine whether similar interaction of ghrelin and cannabinoid signaling exists in other ghrelin sensitive hypothalamic regions.
ghrelin Spec (whether) Binding (interaction) of associated with cannabinoid
10) Confidence 0.22 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2258435 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.36
Thus, GHRH neurons are a specific target for ghrelin within the brain, and not activated secondary to altered activity in feeding circuits.
ghrelin Neg (not) Binding (target) of in brain
11) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.24
0.001; ghrelin vs. control P?
ghrelin Binding (0.001) of
12) Confidence 0.20 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2258435 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.06
Typically, the effect of ghrelin 10 nM reached steady-state within 6–8 minutes, and the mean recovery time from this effect was ?
ghrelin Binding (effect) of
13) Confidence 0.19 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
In this study, we have elucidated the mechanism of the putative ghrelin-cannabinoid interaction.


ghrelin Binding (interaction) of associated with cannabinoid
14) Confidence 0.19 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2258435 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.38
on GSIS were ameliorated, providing direct evidence of the links between ghrelin, IA-2?
ghrelin Binding (links) of
15) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.03
The first evidences about an interaction between ghrelin and glucose metabolism arose when it was seen that single subcutaneous ghrelin injections induced an increase of the respiratory quotient (RQ), which suggested an augmented utilization of carbohydrate and reduced utilization of fat to meet energy requirements that was congruent with the observed increase in body fat [10].
ghrelin Binding (interaction) of in fat
16) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0
Doi et al. observed that ghrelin inhibits GSIS in MIN6 cells and that the concentrations of ghrelin inhibiting GSIS were very close to those of ghrelin enhancing IA-2?
ghrelin Binding (concentrations) of
17) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.04
Interestingly, ghrelin did not affect insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in perirenal adipocytes, which do not express GHSR1a, and des-acyl ghrelin, which does not bind to GHSR1a, did not influence insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in epididymal adipocytes The effects of ghrelin on adipocyte glucose uptake might be expected to result in fatty acid accumulation and an increase in adiposity in the long term [145].
ghrelin Neg (not) Spec (might) Binding (bind) of in adipocyte associated with obesity
18) Confidence 0.15 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.84 Pain Relevance 0
Evidences that UAG is an active peptide implies the existence of GHSR subtypes that recognize and bind ghrelin independently of its acylation.
ghrelin Binding (bind) of
19) Confidence 0.15 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.04
Subsequently, several prohormone convertases (PC1/3, PC2, and furin) permit sequential formation of octanoylated Ser3 proghrelin 1–94 and octanoylated Ser3 ghrelin 1–28 [496, 649, 650].
Ser3 proghrelin 1 Binding (formation) of
20) Confidence 0.07 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0

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