INT2289

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Context Info
Confidence 0.78
First Reported 1978
Last Reported 2010
Negated 4
Speculated 10
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 203
Total Number 214
Disease Relevance 55.62
Pain Relevance 79.49

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signal transduction (PENK) extracellular region (PENK)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 10
SK-N-MC 8
brain 5
stromal cells 5
neuronal 4
PENK (Homo sapiens)
PENK - M5T (1)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 868 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 536 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 156 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 144 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 96 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nerve growth factor 54 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 23 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Catecholamine 23 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Endogenous opioid 13 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cannabinoid receptor 7 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 47 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Natriuresis 8 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 1917 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Cold Sores 1840 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 76 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Herpes Simplex Virus 37 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 46 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoporosis 16 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 178 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Bone Cancer 6 99.64 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Overactivity of the striatopallidal pathway, associated with an enhancement of enkephalin expression, has been suggested to contribute to the development of parkinsonian symptoms.
Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin associated with parkinson's disease and enkephalin
1) Confidence 0.78 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 14622918 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.28
None of the abovementioned antagonists of mGluR1 and mGluR5 per se influenced the proenkephalin expression.
Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin associated with antagonist
2) Confidence 0.78 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 14622918 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.34
The aim of the present study was to examine whether the blockade of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors: subtypes 1 and 5 (mGluR1/5), or stimulation of group II: subtypes 2 and 3 (mGluR2/3) may normalize enkephalin expression in the striatopallidal pathway in an animal model of parkinsonism.
Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin associated with parkinson's disease, glutamate receptor and enkephalin
3) Confidence 0.78 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 14622918 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.31
Immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay revealed that enkephalin peptides were being produced in releasable pools in sensory neurons innervating the treated skin area.
Gene_expression (produced) of enkephalin in skin associated with enkephalin
4) Confidence 0.78 Published 2006 Journal Mol. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 16288901 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.96
Preproenkephalin and preprotachykinin messenger RNA expression in normal human basal ganglia and in Parkinson's disease.
Gene_expression (expression) of Preproenkephalin in basal ganglia associated with enkephalin and disease
5) Confidence 0.78 Published 1995 Journal Neuroscience Section Title Doc Link 7477878 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.21
Striatal expression of preproenkephalin and preprotachykinin messenger RNA was studied in normal controls and in patients with Parkinson's disease using in situ hybridization histochemistry.
Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin associated with disease
6) Confidence 0.78 Published 1995 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7477878 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.06
In Parkinson's disease cases, there was a statistically significant increase in preproenkephalin messenger RNA expression in the body of the caudate (109% increase, P < 0.05) and in the intermediolateral putamen (55% increase, P < 0.05) due to an increase in the level of gene expression per neuron rather than an increase in the number of neurons expressing preproenkephalin messenger RNA.
Gene_expression (expressing) of preproenkephalin messenger RNA in body associated with urological neuroanatomy and disease
7) Confidence 0.78 Published 1995 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7477878 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.15
In addition, preproenkephalin messenger RNA was expressed at low levels by neurons in the subthalamic nucleus.
Gene_expression (expressed) of preproenkephalin messenger RNA in subthalamic nucleus
8) Confidence 0.78 Published 1995 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7477878 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.14
In controls, preproenkephalin messenger RNA was expressed in a population of medium-sized neurons of mean cross-sectional area 165 microns 2, accounting for 66% of striatal medium-sized neurons, whereas preprotachykinin messenger RNA was expressed in a population of medium-sized neurons of mean cross-sectional area 204 microns 2 (23% larger than those expressing enkephalin, P < 0.05), accounting for 58% of medium-sized striatal neurons.
Gene_expression (expressed) of preproenkephalin messenger RNA in neurons associated with enkephalin
9) Confidence 0.78 Published 1995 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7477878 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.12
The expression of enkephalin and substance P messenger RNAs was examined in the caudate-putamen of human post mortem tissue from control and Huntington's disease tissue using in situ hybridization techniques and human specific enkephalin and substance P [35S] oligonucleotides.
Spec (examined) Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin in caudate-putamen associated with enkephalin, disease and substance p
10) Confidence 0.77 Published 1996 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 8735227 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.51
Macroscopic and microscopic quantification of enkephalin and substance P gene expression was carried out using computer-assisted image analysis.
Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin and substance p
11) Confidence 0.77 Published 1996 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 8735227 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0.63
It is suggested that the down-regulation is related to the transient expression of the enkephalin gene in developing brain and other organs.
Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin gene in brain associated with enkephalin
12) Confidence 0.76 Published 1990 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 2211684 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.66
In nondifferentiated state, the continuous cell line SK-N-MC displayed an equally high level of expression of the enkephalin, cholecystokinin, and gastrin-releasing peptide genes.
Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin in SK-N-MC associated with enkephalin and cholecystokinin
13) Confidence 0.76 Published 1990 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 2211684 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.61
After 3 days the expression of the enkephalin gene in endothelial cell growth supplement-differentiated cells was significantly reduced by 75% as compared to the nondifferentiated cells, while there was no change in the expression of the cholecystokinin and gastrin-releasing peptide genes during differentiation.
Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin gene in endothelial cell associated with enkephalin and cholecystokinin
14) Confidence 0.76 Published 1990 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 2211684 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.70
In post-mortem samples from LD-treated parkinsonian patients, increased preproenkephalin expression in the putamen and increased GABA(A) receptors content in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) are found in dyskinetic parkinsonian patients compared to non-dyskinetic patients.
Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in putamen associated with parkinson's disease and gaba
15) Confidence 0.76 Published 2002 Journal Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. Section Abstract Doc Link 12217634 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.19
Levodopa response motor complications--GABA receptors and preproenkephalin expression in human brain.
Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in brain associated with gaba receptor and enkephalin
16) Confidence 0.76 Published 2002 Journal Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. Section Title Doc Link 12217634 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.28
This vector induced enkephalin expression selectively in the nociceptors innervating the tissue onto which it was applied, producing a profound analgesic and antihyperalgesic in acute and chronic pain models in both rodents and non-human primates.
Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin in nociceptors associated with antihyperalgesic, lasting pain, analgesic, nociceptor and enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Gene Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 19225546 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.83
Interestingly, overexpression of proenkephalin A in primary sensory neurones induced antinociceptive effects in persistent pain of inflammatory, neuropathic and cancerous origins.
Gene_expression (overexpression) of proenkephalin A
18) Confidence 0.75 Published 2003 Journal Curr Opin Anaesthesiol Section Body Doc Link 17021510 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
In addition, proenkephalin A mRNA and enkephalin-related peptides are expressed by lymphocytes.
Gene_expression (expressed) of proenkephalin A in lymphocytes associated with enkephalin
19) Confidence 0.75 Published 1998 Journal Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9629268 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.60
Testosterone propionate treatment reduced proenkephalin expression in the diagonal band of Broca, the caudal preoptic area, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.
Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in preoptic area
20) Confidence 0.75 Published 2003 Journal Biol. Reprod. Section Abstract Doc Link 12930728 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.13

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