INT22965

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Context Info
Confidence 0.61
First Reported 1990
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 42
Total Number 46
Disease Relevance 41.41
Pain Relevance 8.84

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
ductus arteriosus 4
lung 3
Pulmonary artery 2
basement membranes 2
plasma 1
Pah (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
cva 79 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 10 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
fluoxetine 66 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 284 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 93 99.06 Very High Very High Very High
Paracetamol 20 98.90 Very High Very High Very High
amygdala 2 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
sSRI 26 98.00 Very High Very High Very High
metalloproteinase 80 97.90 Very High Very High Very High
fibrosis 20 96.60 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pulmonary Hypertension 3752 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoxia 169 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cv General 3 Under Development 39 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Eisenmenger Complex 25 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Or Hiv Infection 57 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Airway Obstruction 10 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 257 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
Toxicity 15 99.08 Very High Very High Very High
Death 66 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
Increased Venous Pressure Under Development 234 98.92 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Serial echocardiographic and invasive measurements were performed at baseline, 21 and 35 days after monocrotaline-induction of PAH.
Positive_regulation (induction) of PAH associated with pulmonary hypertension
1) Confidence 0.61 Published 2010 Journal Int J Cardiovasc Imaging Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2868165 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.04
In contrast to APAP nephrotoxicity in vivo, APAP toxicity in renal slices was accompanied by decreased accumulation of PAH and TEA.
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of PAH associated with nephrotoxicity, toxicity and paracetamol
2) Confidence 0.60 Published 1990 Journal Toxicol. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 2356566 Disease Relevance 0.78 Pain Relevance 1.48
Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the short- and long-term effects of fluoxetine on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH and associated pathophysiological changes in PAH models. 2.
Positive_regulation (induced) of PAH associated with pulmonary hypertension and fluoxetine
3) Confidence 0.57 Published 2009 Journal Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19473340 Disease Relevance 0.86 Pain Relevance 0.36
Although many of these therapies have demonstrated to be effective in monocrotaline-induced PAH in experimental animals, any therapy to be planned for use in human PAH should be tested before in other animal models of PAH.
Positive_regulation (induced) of PAH associated with pulmonary hypertension
4) Confidence 0.45 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Section Body Doc Link PMC2843902 Disease Relevance 0.73 Pain Relevance 0.03
Long-term treatment with a Rho-kinase inhibitor fasudil improved the mortality rate of MCT-induced PAH in rats [12], as well as ameliorated hypoxia-induced PAH in mice, partially by activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) [13].
Positive_regulation (induced) of PAH associated with pulmonary hypertension and hypoxia
5) Confidence 0.45 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Section Body Doc Link PMC2843902 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0
Depletion of cofactors required for the PAH activity, physiologically by hypoxia or pharmacologically by intracellular iron chelation, increases the HIF-1?
Positive_regulation (required) of PAH associated with hypoxia
6) Confidence 0.40 Published 2007 Journal The Open Biochemistry Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2570544 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0.10
Developments in recent years have suggested that a new class of drug, rho kinase inhibitors, may be beneficial in the treatment of pediatric PAH.103,104 Rho kinase causes vasoconstriction of vascular smooth muscle through phosphorylation and consequent inhibition of myosin phosphatase.105 It has also been shown that rho kinase acts by activation of the enzyme myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), which causes phosphorylation of the hyper-constrictive segments of arteries in vitro.106 Animal models have suggested that activation of rho kinase is associated with pulmonary vasoconstriction and proliferation, impaired endothelial vasodilatation and pulmonary remodelling, and that administration of its antagonists reverse these processes.107,108 Preliminary results have suggested that administration of intravenous fasudil, a selective rho-kinase inhibitor, may cause acute pulmonary vasodilatation and reduction in PA pressure in patients with severe PAH refractory to other therapies.103,109

Vasoactive intestinal peptide

Positive_regulation (pediatric) of PAH in smooth muscle associated with pulmonary hypertension, antagonist and increased venous pressure under development
7) Confidence 0.40 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2697585 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.14
In conclusion, fluoxetine protects against MCT-induced PAH by suppressing PASMC proliferation, inducing PASMC apoptosis and upregulating Kv1.5 channels.
Positive_regulation (induced) of PAH associated with pulmonary hypertension, apoptosis and fluoxetine
8) Confidence 0.39 Published 2009 Journal Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19298536 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0.64
Statistical difference between the parameters at baseline, 21 and 35 days after PAH induction was assessed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with Tukey’s correction, except for those without successful measurements at baseline, which were assessed by paired t-test.
Positive_regulation (induction) of PAH associated with pulmonary hypertension
9) Confidence 0.38 Published 2010 Journal Int J Cardiovasc Imaging Section Body Doc Link PMC2868165 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0
A serotonin receptor antagonist, MCI-9042, attenuated the development of MCT-induced PAH, suggesting a pivotal role of serotonin in the development of PAH induced by MCT [24].
Positive_regulation (development) of PAH associated with pulmonary hypertension, antagonist and serotonin
10) Confidence 0.38 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Section Body Doc Link PMC2843902 Disease Relevance 1.09 Pain Relevance 0.60
A single injection of ONO-1301MS resulted in sustained activity for 3 weeks, and attenuated PAH, partly through its antiproliferative effect on vascular SMCs via inhibition of ERK phosphorylation [8].
Positive_regulation (attenuated) of PAH associated with pulmonary hypertension
11) Confidence 0.38 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Section Body Doc Link PMC2843902 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0.09
The pathogenesis that underlies PAH has become better understood.
Positive_regulation (underlies) of PAH associated with pulmonary hypertension
12) Confidence 0.37 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2350123 Disease Relevance 1.25 Pain Relevance 0.16
We investigated the diagnostic yield of echocardiographically derived TPVR and echocardiographic parameters of PAP in screening PAH in a rat model.
Positive_regulation (screening) of PAH associated with pulmonary hypertension
13) Confidence 0.36 Published 2010 Journal Int J Cardiovasc Imaging Section Body Doc Link PMC2868165 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0.03
Invasive PAPs in our study were similar to the values reported in earlier studies of rats with MCT-induced PAH [20, 29, 30].
Positive_regulation (induced) of PAH associated with pulmonary hypertension
14) Confidence 0.36 Published 2010 Journal Int J Cardiovasc Imaging Section Body Doc Link PMC2868165 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0
Pulmonary artery acceleration time values in our study were similar to the values observed in earlier studies of rats with MCT-induced PAH [30, 31].
Positive_regulation (induced) of PAH in Pulmonary artery associated with pulmonary hypertension
15) Confidence 0.36 Published 2010 Journal Int J Cardiovasc Imaging Section Body Doc Link PMC2868165 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0
Various experimental models have been proposed for induction of PAH in animals including: (1) monocrotaline- (MCT-) induced PAH with or without aortocaval shunt; (2) chronic hypoxia-induced PAH; (3) chronic embolism-induced PAH; (4) ligation of ductus arteriosus; (5) overcirculation-induced PH; (6) genetically modified animal models, such as mice lacking the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) gene.
Positive_regulation (induction) of PAH in ductus arteriosus associated with pulmonary hypertension, hypoxia and cva
16) Confidence 0.35 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Section Body Doc Link PMC2843902 Disease Relevance 1.87 Pain Relevance 0.11
The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been associated with complications including interstitial and alveolar hemorrhage and secondary epithelial alterations.51 For this reason, since the establishment of inhaled NO therapy as a treatment for pediatric PAH, the use of ECMO has significantly decreased.52 Despite this, there are still some incidences in which ECMO therapy is necessary, such as those infants with severe respiratory or cardiac disease in addition to pulmonary arterial hypertension; one study of children with hypoxemic respiratory failure found that treatment with NO alone was successful in only 29% cases.53

Maintenance therapies

Positive_regulation (pediatric) of PAH in respiratory associated with pulmonary hypertension, heart disease, respiratory failure and cva
17) Confidence 0.35 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2697585 Disease Relevance 1.00 Pain Relevance 0.05
Limited research has suggested that modulation of the process of apoptosis (programmed cell death) involved in the process of vascular remodelling in PAH could be one possible therapeutic opportunity.112,113 For example, survivin (also known as Birc5), is one of a family of genes known to inhibit apoptosis; the use of molecular antagonists of survivin to increase cell death and prevent vascular remodelling may, in the future, hold therapeutic potential.114 Similarly, preliminary research has suggested that the use of the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitor, pravastatin, and the Cox-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, prevent the development of monocrotaline-induced PAH in rats.115,116 Simvastatin has been found to be ineffective in this respect in vitro.117

Serotonin pathways

Positive_regulation (induced) of PAH associated with pulmonary hypertension, antagonist, apoptosis, serotonin and death
18) Confidence 0.35 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2697585 Disease Relevance 1.06 Pain Relevance 0.31
Research has found that patients with PAH have increased plasma serotonin levels,118 and that over-expression of the serotonin transporter gene (SERT) increases PA pressure.119 Hypoxia and monocrotaline-induced PAH in animals has been shown to be inhibited by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine.120,121 So far however, studies in humans have not produced statistically significant results.122

l-Arginine

Positive_regulation (induced) of PAH in plasma associated with pulmonary hypertension, hypoxia, ssri, serotonin and fluoxetine
19) Confidence 0.35 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2697585 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.37
Three weeks after the induction of PAH by MCT, pulmonary haemodynamic measurements and pulmonary artery morphological assessments were undertaken, along with detection of apoptosis and Kv1.5. 3.
Positive_regulation (induction) of PAH in pulmonary artery associated with pulmonary hypertension and apoptosis
20) Confidence 0.34 Published 2009 Journal Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19298536 Disease Relevance 1.10 Pain Relevance 0.61

General Comments

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