INT229940

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Context Info
Confidence 0.49
First Reported 2006
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 10
Total Number 20
Disease Relevance 27.97
Pain Relevance 0.15

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
eye 7
plasma 1
blood vessel 1
vessels 1
amd (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Inflammation 295 92.40 High High
cva 191 49.12 Quite Low
Pain 3 41.16 Quite Low
eye pain 15 30.04 Quite Low
cytokine 11 27.32 Quite Low
Neurotransmitter 2 14.56 Low Low
Nicotine 13 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
imagery 13 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
anesthesia 12 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Inflammatory response 12 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Age-related Macular Degeneration 3091 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nicotine Addiction 165 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Cataract 117 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 153 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Pressure And Volume Under Development 88 99.46 Very High Very High Very High
Geographic Atrophy 90 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
Ocular Toxicity (including Many Sub-types) 540 98.40 Very High Very High Very High
Eye Disease 34 98.20 Very High Very High Very High
Cicatrix 14 97.68 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 153 96.60 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The Beaver Dam Eye Study showed that cataract surgery was associated with a fourfold increase in the risk of neovascular AMD and a threefold increase in geographic atrophy 10 years later [8,9].
Positive_regulation (increase) of AMD in Eye associated with age-related macular degeneration, geographic atrophy and cataract
1) Confidence 0.49 Published 2009 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2793903 Disease Relevance 1.50 Pain Relevance 0
The epidemiologic data, such as the Beaver Dam Eye Study, suggest that smoking induces early AMD as well as progression of AMD, compared to nonsmokers [32].
Positive_regulation (induces) of AMD in Eye associated with nicotine addiction and age-related macular degeneration
2) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2518621 Disease Relevance 1.89 Pain Relevance 0
Patients with dry AMD are categorized as having early AMD (category 2) or intermediate AMD (category 3) while patients with neovascular AMD are considered to have advanced AMD (category 4).
Positive_regulation (intermediate) of AMD associated with age-related macular degeneration
3) Confidence 0.40 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012443 Disease Relevance 1.70 Pain Relevance 0
The AAO Retina Panel recommends antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for patients with intermediate AMD (AREDS category 3) or advanced AMD in one eye (AREDS category 4) (AAO 2006).
Positive_regulation (advanced) of AMD in eye associated with age-related macular degeneration
4) Confidence 0.40 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012443 Disease Relevance 1.47 Pain Relevance 0
Diabetes has been hypothesized to increase the risk of AMD, but few epidemiologic studies have found such a risk (Klein et al. 2004).
Positive_regulation (increase) of AMD associated with diabetes mellitus and age-related macular degeneration
5) Confidence 0.40 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012443 Disease Relevance 1.77 Pain Relevance 0.05
Several studies suggest that hypertension and cataract surgery also increase the risk of progression to late AMD, but the link is not conclusive (Klein et al. 2004).
Positive_regulation (increase) of AMD associated with pressure and volume under development, age-related macular degeneration and cataract
6) Confidence 0.40 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012443 Disease Relevance 1.71 Pain Relevance 0.05
The odds for the development of advanced AMD at 5 years are 26% in patients in whom drusen are present bilaterally, compared with 6.3% for patients with large drusen in only one eye.
Positive_regulation (advanced) of AMD in eye associated with ocular toxicity (including many sub-types) and age-related macular degeneration
7) Confidence 0.40 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012443 Disease Relevance 2.30 Pain Relevance 0
The AAO Retina Panel recommends antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for patients with intermediate AMD (AREDS category 3) or advanced AMD in one eye (AREDS category 4) (AAO 2006).
Positive_regulation (intermediate) of AMD in eye associated with age-related macular degeneration
8) Confidence 0.40 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012443 Disease Relevance 1.54 Pain Relevance 0
Recently, three additional genes that also potentially confer risk for AMD—LOC387715 (ARMS2), PLEKHA1, and HTRA1—have been identified.
Positive_regulation (confer) of AMD associated with age-related macular degeneration
9) Confidence 0.40 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012443 Disease Relevance 1.46 Pain Relevance 0.03
The AAO Retina Panel recommends antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for patients with intermediate AMD (AREDS category 3) or advanced AMD in one eye (AREDS category 4) (AAO 2006).
Positive_regulation (intermediate) of AMD in eye associated with age-related macular degeneration
10) Confidence 0.40 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012443 Disease Relevance 1.53 Pain Relevance 0
Patients with dry AMD are categorized as having early AMD (category 2) or intermediate AMD (category 3) while patients with neovascular AMD are considered to have advanced AMD (category 4).
Positive_regulation (advanced) of AMD associated with age-related macular degeneration
11) Confidence 0.40 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012443 Disease Relevance 1.84 Pain Relevance 0
Observation is recommended, with no medical or surgical therapies, for patients with no clinical signs of AMD (AREDS category 1), early AMD (AREDS category 2), or advanced AMD with bilateral subfoveal geographic atrophy or disciform scars (AAO 2006).
Positive_regulation (advanced) of AMD associated with cicatrix, age-related macular degeneration and geographic atrophy
12) Confidence 0.40 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012443 Disease Relevance 1.41 Pain Relevance 0
There are two clinical forms of AMD: dry AMD and neovascular AMD (Haddad et al. 2006).
Positive_regulation (neovascular) of AMD associated with age-related macular degeneration
13) Confidence 0.40 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012443 Disease Relevance 1.90 Pain Relevance 0
Significant increases in AMD risk were seen in all the meta-analyses for current versus never smokers.
Positive_regulation (increases) of AMD associated with nicotine addiction and age-related macular degeneration
14) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal BMC Ophthalmol Section Body Doc Link PMC3009619 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0
Based on the data from the prospective cohort studies, the presence of diabetes was associated with an increased risk of late AMD (RR 1.66; 95% CI 1.05 - 2.63).
Positive_regulation (increased) of AMD associated with diabetes mellitus and age-related macular degeneration
15) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal BMC Ophthalmol Section Body Doc Link PMC3009619 Disease Relevance 0.97 Pain Relevance 0
Several previous human studies have suggested, and a large-scale clinical study (the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2) is now ongoing, to show the effect of lutein in reducing risk of progression of AMD, which is, at least in part, accelerated by light exposure [46].
Positive_regulation (accelerated) of AMD in Eye associated with age-related macular degeneration and eye disease
16) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal Diabetologia Section Body Doc Link PMC2850533 Disease Relevance 1.42 Pain Relevance 0
Anti-VEGF therapies, such as pegaptanib, tend to be less effective at trying to promote regression of more established vessels than at treating AMD in its early stages.
Positive_regulation (treating) of AMD in vessels associated with age-related macular degeneration
17) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal International Journal of Nanomedicine Section Body Doc Link PMC2426796 Disease Relevance 0.69 Pain Relevance 0.03
When comparing different treatments for their efficacy in treating AMD using the Lineweaver-Burke (LB) linear plot and correcting for differences in the initial visual acuity score (VAS), pegaptanib, PDT, and anecortave acetate produced a similar slope and ranibizumab (Lucentis®), another anti-VEGF therapy, appeared to be the most efficacious treatment, since it is the only treatment proven to reverse the slope of visual acuity on a LB plot.
Positive_regulation (treating) of AMD associated with age-related macular degeneration
18) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal International Journal of Nanomedicine Section Body Doc Link PMC2426796 Disease Relevance 0.67 Pain Relevance 0
To utilize this strategy, pegaptanib (Macugen®), a 28-base ribonucleic acid aptamer, was developed to specifically bind to and block the activity of the 165 amino acid isoform of VEGF (VEGF165), the major inducer of abnormal blood vessel growth and leakage in wet AMD.
Positive_regulation (inducer) of AMD in blood vessel associated with age-related macular degeneration
19) Confidence 0.14 Published 2006 Journal International Journal of Nanomedicine Section Body Doc Link PMC2426796 Disease Relevance 0.78 Pain Relevance 0
Another study demonstrated that the plasma complement C3a des Arg levels increased in AMD patients compared to controls [98].
Positive_regulation (increased) of AMD in plasma associated with age-related macular degeneration
20) Confidence 0.07 Published 2008 Journal Semin Immunopathol Section Body Doc Link PMC2315691 Disease Relevance 0.83 Pain Relevance 0

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