INT231162

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Context Info
Confidence 0.71
First Reported 2008
Last Reported 2009
Negated 1
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 6
Total Number 12
Disease Relevance 2.27
Pain Relevance 1.07

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (Dmd) cytoskeleton (Dmd) nucleus (Dmd)
cytoplasm (Dmd)
Anatomy Link Frequency
muscle 3
plexiform layer 1
retina 1
synapses 1
hippocampus 1
Dmd (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Neurotransmitter 154 97.96 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 84 93.18 High High
Central nervous system 56 90.24 High High
imagery 18 78.72 Quite High
tetrodotoxin 87 76.44 Quite High
sodium channel 33 71.76 Quite High
ischemia 7 70.04 Quite High
Glutamate 21 35.76 Quite Low
GABAergic 56 18.08 Low Low
Glutamate receptor 42 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Muscular Dystrophy 361 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Congenital Anomalies 84 95.92 Very High Very High Very High
Helminth Infection 49 87.80 High High
Death 57 83.52 Quite High
Muscle Disease 4 81.24 Quite High
Necrosis 12 77.76 Quite High
Targeted Disruption 105 76.72 Quite High
Chronic Disease 4 75.60 Quite High
Cv Unclassified Under Development 7 70.04 Quite High
Apoptosis 32 68.60 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Thus, it has been shown that the large dystrophin isoform DLP2 at the glutamatergic NMJ and the smaller Dp186 isoform at cholinergic central synapses, both postsynaptically localized, are required for wild-type levels of presynaptic neurotransmitter release.
Localization (localized) of dystrophin in synapses associated with neurotransmitter
1) Confidence 0.71 Published 2009 Journal Mol Neurobiol Section Body Doc Link PMC2840664 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.14
Genetic experiments have further indicated that at the NMJ, dystroglycan controls the synaptic localization of dystrophin and laminin [102, 103].
Localization (localization) of dystrophin
2) Confidence 0.71 Published 2009 Journal Mol Neurobiol Section Body Doc Link PMC2840664 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.20
Because of its key localization, dystrophin is thought to play multiple roles such as maintaining mechanical stability of the muscle architecture (Koenig et al., 1988) or regulating the function of sarcolemmal components, for example, cation channels (Fong et al., 1990).
Localization (localization) of dystrophin in muscle
3) Confidence 0.68 Published 2008 Journal The Journal of General Physiology Section Body Doc Link PMC2483333 Disease Relevance 0.48 Pain Relevance 0.08
Deregulation, by the absence of dystrophin, of Nav1.4 activity leading to Na+ overload is likely connected with multiple other changes reported in mdx fibers.
Neg (absence) Localization (absence) of dystrophin
4) Confidence 0.68 Published 2008 Journal The Journal of General Physiology Section Body Doc Link PMC2483333 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0
It seems that Nav1.4 protein is directly attached to an L domain in normal muscle, and the absence of dystrophin leads to irregularities in its anchorage, implying that the DGC is required for proper localization and function of the VGSCs.
Localization (absence) of dystrophin in muscle
5) Confidence 0.68 Published 2008 Journal The Journal of General Physiology Section Body Doc Link PMC2483333 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.04
Based on a number of studies, in which different dystrophin isoforms have been localized to specific regions within the retina, it is proposed that each isoform likely contributes a unique function [157].
Localization (localized) of dystrophin in retina
6) Confidence 0.66 Published 2009 Journal Mol Neurobiol Section Body Doc Link PMC2840664 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.09
The six families of proteins encompassing the DGC can be divided into three subcomplexes: (1) a cytoplasmic complex comprised of dystrophin (or utrophin), dystrobrevin and syntrophin, (2) the transmembrane dystroglycan complex, and (3) the sarcoglycan–sarcospan complex (reviewed in [1, 18, 25, 39, 40]).
Localization (comprised) of dystrophin
7) Confidence 0.66 Published 2009 Journal Mol Neurobiol Section Body Doc Link PMC2840664 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.12
For example, Dp427 and Dp260 are located in the outer plexiform layer (OPL), where photoreceptors form synapses with horizontal and bipolar cells.
Localization (located) of Dp427 in plexiform layer
8) Confidence 0.66 Published 2009 Journal Mol Neurobiol Section Body Doc Link PMC2840664 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.06
We observed a reduced expression of this syntrophin in mdx5cv muscle (Fig. 7 B), similar to what was reported by Williams and Bloch (1999b).
Localization (muscle) of mdx5cv in muscle
9) Confidence 0.60 Published 2008 Journal The Journal of General Physiology Section Body Doc Link PMC2483333 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.12
While the role of NO in the cerebellum and hippocampus has been studied in great detail, little is known about its possible interactions with the DGC at these synapses.Indications that nNOS and the UGC/DGC play interdependent roles at the NMJ are supported by the following observations, (1) nNOS is physically associated with the UGC [69], (2) nNOS levels are substantially reduced and nNOS is dislocated from the postsynaptic membrane of DMD patients and in mdx and ?
Localization (dislocated) of mdx in hippocampus associated with muscular dystrophy and hippocampus
10) Confidence 0.58 Published 2009 Journal Mol Neurobiol Section Body Doc Link PMC2840664 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.08
Membranes were cut to allow separate immunoblotting of dystrophin and vinculin and blocked in Odyssey blocking buffer (LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE) for 1 h.
Localization (immunoblotting) of dystrophin
11) Confidence 0.28 Published 2008 Journal BMC Biotechnol Section Body Doc Link PMC2362111 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.06
While the role of NO in the cerebellum and hippocampus has been studied in great detail, little is known about its possible interactions with the DGC at these synapses.Indications that nNOS and the UGC/DGC play interdependent roles at the NMJ are supported by the following observations, (1) nNOS is physically associated with the UGC [69], (2) nNOS levels are substantially reduced and nNOS is dislocated from the postsynaptic membrane of DMD patients and in mdx and ?
Localization (dislocated) of mdx in cerebellum associated with muscular dystrophy and hippocampus
12) Confidence 0.20 Published 2009 Journal Mol Neurobiol Section Body Doc Link PMC2840664 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.08

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