INT23212

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Context Info
Confidence 0.55
First Reported 1990
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 46
Total Number 57
Disease Relevance 32.85
Pain Relevance 15.10

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

intracellular (Rac1) enzyme binding (Rac1) GTPase activity (Rac1)
cytoplasm (Rac1) cell proliferation (Rac1) cell motility (Rac1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
muscle 6
nerve 2
plasma 1
internal anal sphincter 1
brain 1
Rac1 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 114 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Botox 27 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Sciatica 5 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
ischemia 1033 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
headache 81 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 204 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
nerve block 6 99.40 Very High Very High Very High
allodynia 2 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
Migraine 22 98.60 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 8 98.60 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 71 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nerve Root Compression 3 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Cv General 4 Under Development 660 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Cervical Cancer 14 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Headache 70 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Spasticity 27 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Dystonia 9 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Torticollis 5 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Cv Unclassified Under Development 363 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Voice Disorders 2 99.52 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Rac1 GTPase activation has been suggested to be critical for NADPH oxidase activation in immune cells and may have a similar role in the brain.
Positive_regulation (activation) of Rac1 in brain
1) Confidence 0.55 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2935374 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0.22
Our study also provides insight into how Rac1 GTPase activation contributes to cerebral ischemia pathology, by demonstrating that Rac1 GTPase activation is critical for induction of oxidative stress in the hippocampal CA1 region following ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Positive_regulation (activation) of Rac1 associated with stress, reperfusion injury, cv general 4 under development and ischemia
2) Confidence 0.55 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2935374 Disease Relevance 1.38 Pain Relevance 0.35
Thus, it is postulated that regulation of Tiam1 and Trio following cerebral ischemia contributes to the enhanced Rac1 GTPase activation following ischemia/reperfusion.
Positive_regulation (activation) of Rac1 associated with cv general 4 under development and ischemia
3) Confidence 0.55 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2935374 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.27
Further functional analysis revealed that the underlying signal transduction pathways involve activation of the Rho-GTPases RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 and their corresponding downstream targets Rho-kinase (ROCK) and p21-activated kinase (PAK).
Positive_regulation (activation) of Rac1
4) Confidence 0.48 Published 2009 Journal Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. Section Abstract Doc Link 19896457 Disease Relevance 0.67 Pain Relevance 0.41
To determine whether SCI-induced dendritic spine remodeling contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability and neuropathic pain, we analyzed spine morphometry, localization, and functional influence in dorsal horn (DH) neurons in adult rats 1 month after sham surgery, contusion SCI, and SCI treated with a selective inhibitor of Rac1 activation, NSC23766.
Positive_regulation (activation) of Rac1 in spine associated with frailty, dorsal horn, neuropathic pain, contusions and hyperexcitability
5) Confidence 0.47 Published 2008 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 19052208 Disease Relevance 1.31 Pain Relevance 0.69
[Advances in botulinum toxin applications].
Positive_regulation ([Advances) of botulinum toxin
6) Confidence 0.43 Published 1999 Journal Pol. Merkur. Lekarski Section Title Doc Link 10598494 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.20
Recently, injections of botulinum toxin in patients with cricopharyngeal muscle dysfunction have been reported to result in marked relief of dysphagia.
Positive_regulation (injections) of botulinum toxin in muscle associated with dysphagia
7) Confidence 0.43 Published 2001 Journal Dysphagia Section Abstract Doc Link 11453562 Disease Relevance 0.83 Pain Relevance 0.07
CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of a single injection of botulinum toxin in the internal anal sphincter does not differ from that of a placebo in patients with chronic anal fissure.


Positive_regulation (injection) of botulinum toxin in internal anal sphincter
8) Confidence 0.43 Published 2003 Journal Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. Section Body Doc Link 12950424 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
Therapeutic uses of botulinum toxin.
Positive_regulation (uses) of botulinum toxin
9) Confidence 0.43 Published 1997 Journal Am Fam Physician Section Title Doc Link 9054223 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0.07
SUMMARY: Most open studies and case reports suggest an efficacy of botulinum toxin in headache prophylaxis but double-blind, placebo-controlled studies do not confirm this assumption.
Positive_regulation (efficacy) of botulinum toxin
10) Confidence 0.43 Published 2004 Journal Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg Section Body Doc Link 15167029 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
Noncosmetic uses of botulinum toxin.
Positive_regulation (uses) of botulinum toxin associated with pain
11) Confidence 0.43 Published 2004 Journal Dermatol Clin Section Title Doc Link 15222579 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.10
METHODS: We conducted a placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind study to assess the efficacy of a single injection of botulinum toxin in the internal anal sphincter of patients with chronic anal fissure in six ambulatory care clinics.
Positive_regulation (injection) of botulinum toxin in fissure
12) Confidence 0.43 Published 2003 Journal Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. Section Body Doc Link 12950424 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0
This brief review provides an overview of the role of muscle imbalance in sports-related pain and dysfunction, and outlines the potential for intramuscular injection of Botulinum toxin to be used as an adjunct to specific muscle re-education and functional rehabilitation in this patient group.
Positive_regulation (injection) of Botulinum toxin in muscle associated with pain
13) Confidence 0.43 Published 2007 Journal Disabil Rehabil Section Abstract Doc Link 18033608 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.19
With the greater acceptance and use of botulinum toxin therapy for cosmetic purposes, botulinum toxin use will increase.
Positive_regulation (increase) of botulinum toxin
14) Confidence 0.41 Published 2007 Journal Medicinal chemistry (Sh?riqah (United Arab Emirates)) Section Abstract Doc Link 17627570 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.09
OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical characteristics and/or injection parameters that predict a favorable response to botulinum toxin type A in patients with episodic and chronic migraine.
Positive_regulation (response) of botulinum toxin associated with migraine and botox
15) Confidence 0.41 Published 2005 Journal Headache Section Abstract Doc Link 15836566 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.26
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a single, low-dose injection of botulinum toxin type A in relieving pain in Korean patients with piriformis syndrome resistant to conventional therapy, and to assess the drug's influence on these patients' quality of life.
Positive_regulation (injection) of botulinum toxin associated with pain, piriformis muscle syndrome and botox
16) Confidence 0.41 Published 2007 Journal Pharmacotherapy Section Abstract Doc Link 17461700 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.19
Our study also provides insight into how Rac1 GTPase activation contributes to cerebral ischemia pathology, by demonstrating that Rac1 GTPase activation is critical for induction of oxidative stress in the hippocampal CA1 region following ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Positive_regulation (activation) of Rac1 associated with stress, reperfusion injury, cv general 4 under development and ischemia
17) Confidence 0.40 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2935374 Disease Relevance 1.42 Pain Relevance 0.38
In conclusion, the current study provides evidence of an important role of Rac1 GTPase in ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced NADPH oxidase activation, O2?
Positive_regulation (role) of Rac1 associated with reperfusion injury and ischemia
18) Confidence 0.40 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2935374 Disease Relevance 1.55 Pain Relevance 0.31
Taken altogether, our findings suggest NSC23766 to be an effective Rac1 inhibitor, having the ability to counteract Rac1 activation at 3 h following cerebral ischemia.
Positive_regulation (activation) of Rac1 associated with cv general 4 under development and ischemia
19) Confidence 0.40 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2935374 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0.25
CONCLUSION: The findings of this study support the use of botulinum toxin for headache and eye pain relief in patients with benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial pain.
Positive_regulation (use) of botulinum toxin in eye
20) Confidence 0.40 Published 2008 Journal Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg Section Body Doc Link 18356715 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0

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