INT233458

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Context Info
Confidence 0.66
First Reported 2008
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 2
Total Number 22
Disease Relevance 1.75
Pain Relevance 2.11

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (Gpr18) plasma membrane (Gpr18) signal transducer activity (Gpr18)
Anatomy Link Frequency
microglia 15
macrophage 1
Gpr18 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
agonist 279 98.10 Very High Very High Very High
Analgesic 1 97.92 Very High Very High Very High
Endocannabinoid 84 97.28 Very High Very High Very High
IPN 22 97.16 Very High Very High Very High
adenocard 3 94.08 High High
Cannabinoid 189 91.20 High High
antagonist 191 90.76 High High
Potency 105 87.08 High High
Inflammation 179 80.24 Quite High
Nicotine 21 77.92 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Inflammatory Pain 22 97.16 Very High Very High Very High
Mental Disorders 21 83.84 Quite High
Neuropathic Pain 21 82.56 Quite High
INFLAMMATION 189 80.24 Quite High
Obesity 21 79.76 Quite High
Osteoporosis 21 79.04 Quite High
Nicotine Addiction 21 77.92 Quite High
Bordatella Infection 42 75.68 Quite High
Liver Disease 21 73.92 Quite High
Increased Venous Pressure Under Development 42 72.88 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Indeed, qPCR demonstrates that BV-2 and primary microglia express abundant amounts of GPR18 mRNA (Figures 5A &5B).
Gene_expression (express) of GPR18 mRNA in microglia
1) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
For this to hold true, BV-2 microglia must express GPR18 receptors.
Gene_expression (express) of GPR18 in microglia
2) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
Finally, BV-2 microglia show heterogeneous GPR18 immunocytochemical staining, including the polymerized actin-containing lamellipodia that permit motile cells to achieve directed migration, and abundant GPR18 mRNA. qPCR demonstrates that primary microglia, likewise, express abundant amounts of GPR18 mRNA.
Gene_expression (express) of GPR18 mRNA in microglia
3) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0.31
Expression of GPR18 mRNA in BV-2 and primary microglia was determined by RT-qPCR, using B2-MG as a normalizing gene, as previously described [67].
Gene_expression (Expression) of GPR18 mRNA in microglia
4) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.03
Overexpression of GPR18 affects directed migration induced by NAGly and Abn-CBD
Gene_expression (Overexpression) of GPR18
5) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
In addition, immunocytochemical staining revealed GPR18 receptors are expressed in a heterogeneous punctuate pattern throughout BV-2 microglia and HEK293 cells stably transfected with GPR18, including their polymerized lamellipodia [44,45] (Figure 6).
Gene_expression (transfected) of GPR18 in microglia
6) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
BV-2 microglia express both GPR18 mRNA and GPR18 receptors
Gene_expression (express) of GPR18 mRNA in microglia
7) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
In addition, immunocytochemical staining revealed GPR18 receptors are expressed in a heterogeneous punctuate pattern throughout BV-2 microglia and HEK293 cells stably transfected with GPR18, including their polymerized lamellipodia [44,45] (Figure 6).
Gene_expression (expressed) of GPR18 in microglia
8) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
BV-2 microglia express both GPR18 mRNA and GPR18 receptors
Gene_expression (receptors) of GPR18 in microglia
9) Confidence 0.58 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
Using Boyden chamber migration experiments, yellow tetrazolium (MTT) conversion, In-cell Western, qPCR and immunocytochemistry we show that NAGly, at sub-nanomolar concentrations, and Abn-CBD potently drive cellular migration in both BV-2 microglia and HEK293-GPR18 transfected cells, but neither induce migration in HEK-GPR55 or non-transfected HEK293 wildtype cells.
Neg (neither) Gene_expression (transfected) of HEK293-GPR18 in microglia
10) Confidence 0.51 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0.11 Pain Relevance 0.27
RNA was extracted from BV-2, HEK293-GPR18 transfected cells, and primary microglial cells using the RNAqueous® small scale phenol-free total RNA isolation kit (Applied Biosystems, USA) and RNA samples (2 ?
Gene_expression (transfected) of HEK293-GPR18 in microglial cells
11) Confidence 0.51 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.03
Multiple lines of evidence substantiate this hypothesis: NAGly, at sub-nanomolar concentrations, together with the 'Abn-CBD' receptor agonists Abn-CBD and O-1602 [15,16,18], potently drives cellular migration in both BV-2 microglial and HEK293-GPR18 transfected cells, but not in HEK293-GPR55 or non-transfected HEK293 cells.
Neg (not) Gene_expression (transfected) of HEK293-GPR18 associated with agonist
12) Confidence 0.51 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.09
Expression of GPR18 in BV-2 microglia and HEK293-GPR18 cells was also determined by PCR using oligonucleotide primers based on the sequence of the Mus musculus G protein-coupled receptor 18 (GPR18) mRNA (GenBank Accession No.
Gene_expression (Expression) of GPR18 in microglia
13) Confidence 0.51 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Additionally, BV-2 cells show GPR18 immunocytochemical staining and abundant GPR18 mRNA. qPCR demonstrates that primary microglia, likewise, express abundant amounts of GPR18 mRNA.


Gene_expression (express) of GPR18 mRNA in microglia
14) Confidence 0.51 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.21
Given the potent regulation of Gpr18 expression in BMM by LPS, NAGly is also likely to regulate macrophage function.
Gene_expression (expression) of Gpr18 in macrophage
15) Confidence 0.51 Published 2008 Journal Immunome Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2394514 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.45
PEA (the endogenous AEA analogue), palmitoyl glycine (PALGly; the endogenous NAGly analogue), and L-?
Gene_expression (analogue) of NAGly
16) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.15
M NAGly produced a migratory response (% of fMLP migration) of 435.9% ± 36.9% compared to 22.4% ± 2.9% for AA, and -15.4% ± 5.4% for glycine; these values are significantly different (P < 0.001 compared to 1 ?
Gene_expression (produced) of NAGly
17) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.03
The NAGly-induced p44/42 MAPK activation observed with BV-2 microglia too was reproduced in HEK293-GPR18 cells (Figure 7E).
Gene_expression (reproduced) of NAGly in microglia
18) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.16
This indicates that neither AA nor glycine can account for the migratory response produced in BV-2 microglial cells by NAGly.
Gene_expression (produced) of NAGly in microglial cells
19) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.11
NAGly acts via a Gi/o-coupled GPCR
Gene_expression (coupled) of NAGly
20) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2865488 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.11

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