INT2365

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1977
Last Reported 2010
Negated 11
Speculated 10
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 354
Total Number 364
Disease Relevance 87.80
Pain Relevance 277.41

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Cck) extracellular region (Cck)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 48
spinal 12
spinal cord 9
RVM 8
neurons 7
Cck (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cholecystokinin 2502 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 318 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 300 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 288 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 163 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 148 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 147 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 138 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dorsal horn 120 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 105 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 269 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Viral Infection 1 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Anxiety Disorder 149 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Pancreatitis 204 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Syndrome 24 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 128 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Nervous System Injury 25 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Arthritis 8 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 6 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Panic Disorder 43 99.80 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Upregulation of CCK mRNA in the cortex may be related to post-SCI pain in rats.
Positive_regulation (Upregulation) of CCK mRNA in cortex associated with pain, frailty and cholecystokinin
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 2003 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 14559369 Disease Relevance 0.90 Pain Relevance 0.85
Increased level of cholecystokinin in cerebrospinal fluid is associated with chronic pain-like behavior in spinally injured rats.
Positive_regulation (Increased) of cholecystokinin in cerebrospinal fluid associated with pain, lasting pain and cholecystokinin
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 2001 Journal Peptides Section Title Doc Link 11457525 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 1.43
The increased level of circulating CCK in the cerebrospinal fluid may thus contribute to the maintenance of chronic pain in these rats by reducing the endogenous inhibitory tone provided by opioid peptides and may be involved in the phenomenon of opioid insensitivity.
Positive_regulation (increased) of CCK in cerebrospinal fluid associated with lasting pain, opioid and cholecystokinin
3) Confidence 0.70 Published 2001 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 11457525 Disease Relevance 0.69 Pain Relevance 1.36
These results suggest that CCK receptor mechanisms involved in the control of magnocellular oxytocin neurone activation are upregulated during chronic morphine treatment, and this may favour increased sensitivity to CCK, thereby offsetting the inhibitory actions of morphine, contributing to tolerance and perhaps to the withdrawal excitation characteristic of dependence.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of CCK associated with addiction, tolerance, withdrawal, cholecystokinin and morphine
4) Confidence 0.70 Published 1998 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9507122 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.14
Our results suggested that up-regulation of the mRNA for CCK in primary afferents after nerve injury may be related to the clinical phenomenon of opioid insensitivity.
Positive_regulation (regulation) of CCK in nerve associated with nervous system injury, opioid and cholecystokinin
5) Confidence 0.70 Published 1993 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 8515864 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 1.37
The effects of acute vagotomy as well as that of chemical ablation of the afferent vagal pathway on pancreatic enzyme secretion evoked by increased endogenous plasma CCK levels were investigated.
Positive_regulation (increased) of CCK in plasma
6) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Gastroenterology Section Body Doc Link 8039628 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Similar increases in plasma CCK levels and pancreatic secretion were observed with duodenal administration of casein.
Positive_regulation (increases) of CCK in plasma
7) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Gastroenterology Section Body Doc Link 8039628 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Vagotomy or perivagal application of capsaicin, a sensory neurotoxin, abolished increases in pancreatic secretion but not plasma CCK levels in response to diversion of bile pancreatic secretion or duodenal administration of casein.
Positive_regulation (increases) of CCK in plasma
8) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Gastroenterology Section Body Doc Link 8039628 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
RESULTS: Diversion of bile pancreatic juice elevated plasma CCK levels from a basal level of 0.6 +/- 0.1 pmol/L to 8.9 +/- 2.1 pmol/L and caused a more than twofold increase in pancreatic protein secretion.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of CCK in plasma
9) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Gastroenterology Section Body Doc Link 8039628 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
METHODS: In anesthetized rats, plasma CCK levels were elevated by diversion of bile pancreatic juice and duodenal casein feeding.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of CCK in bile
10) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Gastroenterology Section Body Doc Link 8039628 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Halothane inhalation caused increases in the concentrations of CCK-8S-LI in the amygdala and hippocampus.
Positive_regulation (increases) of CCK in hippocampus associated with hippocampus, halothane and amygdala
11) Confidence 0.70 Published 1989 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 2622522 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.58
Furthermore, differential patterns of increase in CCK mRNA in morphine tolerant rats occurred in different subnuclei of the amygdala, with the highest magnitude of increase in the cortical nucleus, followed in order by the medial, central, basal, intercalated and lateral nuclei.
Positive_regulation (increase) of CCK in medial associated with amygdala, cholecystokinin and morphine
12) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8170343 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.44
The present study demonstrated that repeated administration of morphine increased CCK gene expression in the amygdaloid complex, and suggested that the development of the tolerance to morphine analgesia is due, in part, to an increase in CCK activity in the amygdaloid complex.
Positive_regulation (increase) of CCK associated with tolerance, cholecystokinin, analgesia and morphine
13) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8170343 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.40
The development of morphine tolerance in the rat was associated with increased hybridization signals for CCK mRNA in each subnucleus of the amygdala.
Positive_regulation (increased) of CCK in amygdala associated with tolerance, amygdala, cholecystokinin and morphine
14) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8170343 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.22
Previous studies have shown that repeated opioid administration induces a tolerance to opioid, presumably due in part to an opioid-mediated compensatory increase in brain cholecystokinin (CCK) synthesis and/or release.
Positive_regulation (increase) of CCK in brain associated with tolerance, cholecystokinin and opioid
15) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8170343 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.97
K+ (100 mM) in the perfusion medium induced a more than 3-fold increase of the extracellular level of CCK-LI in control animals, and a more than 4-fold increase on CCK-LI in morphine-pellet implanted animals.
Positive_regulation (increase) of CCK associated with morphine
16) Confidence 0.70 Published 1999 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 10064790 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.49
The present study suggests that the modulatory interaction between CCK and opioids in the development of tolerance in the spinal cord may occur without necessarily increasing the extracellular level of CCK.
Neg (without) Positive_regulation (increasing) of CCK in spinal cord associated with tolerance, opioid and spinal cord
17) Confidence 0.70 Published 1999 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 10064790 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.18
K+ (100 mM) in the perfusion medium induced a more than 3-fold increase of the extracellular level of CCK-LI in control animals, and a more than 4-fold increase on CCK-LI in morphine-pellet implanted animals.
Positive_regulation (increase) of CCK associated with morphine
18) Confidence 0.70 Published 1999 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 10064790 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.53
Haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (1 mg/kg), and TCP (5 mg/kg) preferentially increased DA overflow, whereas morphine (5 mg/kg) elicited marked increases in the overflow of both DA and CCK-8.
Positive_regulation (increases) of CCK-8 associated with dopamine and morphine
19) Confidence 0.70 Published 2000 Journal Synapse Section Abstract Doc Link 11020226 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.64
After administration of evodiamine (0.67-6.00 mg/kg), both gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit were inhibited, whereas the plasma concentration of CCK was increased in a dose-dependent manner.
Positive_regulation (increased) of CCK in plasma associated with cholecystokinin
20) Confidence 0.70 Published 2002 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 12464363 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0.53

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