INT23676

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Context Info
Confidence 0.75
First Reported 1986
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 47
Total Number 49
Disease Relevance 23.66
Pain Relevance 9.51

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (Chrna7) plasma membrane (Chrna7) cytoplasm (Chrna7)
Anatomy Link Frequency
fissures 4
muscle 3
internal 2
diaphragm 1
PSP 1
Chrna7 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Botox 284 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Piles 230 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 4 98.88 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 8 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
tetrodotoxin 10 98.74 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 11 98.36 Very High Very High Very High
sodium channel 5 98.20 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 8 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 172 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
member 8 1 97.96 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Overactive Bladder 222 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Clostridium Infection 22 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Anorectal Disorders 250 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Recurrence 116 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Muscular Spasm 41 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Sleep Disorders 40 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Incontinence 59 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 160 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 81 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
Dystonia 79 98.04 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Botulinum toxin (BTX), a neurotoxin produced by the gram-positive, rod-shaped anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum, was isolated in 1897 by Belgian scientist Professor Pierre Emile van Ermengem.
Gene_expression (produced) of BTX associated with clostridium infection
1) Confidence 0.75 Published 2005 Journal Curr Urol Rep Section Abstract Doc Link 16238914 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0.04
Botulinum toxin (BTX) injection is being increasingly used 'off label' in the management of chronic pain.
Gene_expression (injection) of BTX associated with lasting pain
2) Confidence 0.66 Published 2008 Journal Drugs R D Section Abstract Doc Link 18095750 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.49
The best characterized toxins are botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) and botulinum toxin type B (BTXB), both used therapeutically and commercially available.[12]

BTX: THE MOLECULAR MODE OF ACTION [FIGURE 1]

Gene_expression (type) of BTX associated with botox
3) Confidence 0.65 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840887 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.24
The best characterized toxins are botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) and botulinum toxin type B (BTXB), both used therapeutically and commercially available.[12]

BTX: THE MOLECULAR MODE OF ACTION [FIGURE 1]

Gene_expression (type) of BTX associated with botox
4) Confidence 0.65 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840887 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.24
However, BTX shows a three-dimensional diffusion of about 2 cm, which is considered adequate to reach the internal sphincter as well.[8]
Gene_expression (shows) of BTX in internal
5) Confidence 0.62 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840903 Disease Relevance 0.76 Pain Relevance 0.20
Disruption of the cytoskeleton affected alpha7-nAChR mobility and cell surface expression, but not their ability to form clusters.
Gene_expression (expression) of alpha7-nAChR
6) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link 20634896 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.37
In the present study expression of homomeric nAChR alpha7 was achieved in GH3 rat pituitary cells.
Gene_expression (expression) of homomeric nAChR alpha7 in pituitary
7) Confidence 0.58 Published 2005 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 15695160 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.08
Botulinum toxin A (BTX A) is produced by Clostridium botulinum but can be synthesised as a single chain polypeptide of ~150 kDa that acts as a zinc-dependent endopeptidase.
Gene_expression (produced) of BTX associated with clostridium infection
8) Confidence 0.56 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840903 Disease Relevance 1.21 Pain Relevance 0.47
Brisinda et al. evaluated the efficacy of BTX injection in the treatment of recurrent anal fissures following lateral internal sphincterotomy.
Gene_expression (injection) of BTX in internal associated with piles
9) Confidence 0.54 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840903 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.16
After three years, complete healing was seen in 40.0 and 33.3% of the patients in the nitroglycerine and Botox arms, respectively.[44] The combination of nitroglycerine ointment and BTX seems to potentiate the healing effect.[45] The combination of nifedipin and BTX (30–100 U Botox®) resulted in a remarkable low relapse rate of 2% (n = 47).[38]
Spec (seems) Gene_expression (seems) of BTX in arms associated with recurrence and botox
10) Confidence 0.54 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840903 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.39
The overall success rate of combined fissurectomy and BTX injection was 79%, this combined approach scoring as an excellent and safe procedure with low morbidity and a high healing rate for chronic fissures.[40]
Gene_expression (injection) of BTX in fissures
11) Confidence 0.54 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840903 Disease Relevance 0.60 Pain Relevance 0.18
BTX and GTN were equally effective in healing/improving chronic anal fissures.
Gene_expression (effective) of BTX in fissures associated with piles
12) Confidence 0.54 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840903 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0.41
None of the available BTX products on the market has been approved for the indication of anal fissures.
Gene_expression (products) of BTX in fissures associated with piles
13) Confidence 0.54 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840903 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0.24
Indeed, sphincter manometry after BTX injection has demonstrated a lowering of resting intranal pressure.[6]

SELECTION OF PATIENTS

Gene_expression (injection) of BTX
14) Confidence 0.54 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840903 Disease Relevance 0.90 Pain Relevance 0.29
The relapse rate in the BTX group was significantly higher (35%), with 7% eventually treated by surgery.[37]
Gene_expression (group) of BTX associated with recurrence
15) Confidence 0.54 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840903 Disease Relevance 0.93 Pain Relevance 0.22
The authors combined BTX injection for anal fissures with fissurectomy.
Gene_expression (injection) of BTX in fissures associated with piles
16) Confidence 0.54 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840903 Disease Relevance 0.84 Pain Relevance 0.19
Botulinum toxin (BTX) is produced by Clostridium botulinum as a complex mixture of neurotoxic polypeptides and non-toxic protein components.
Gene_expression (produced) of BTX associated with clostridium infection
17) Confidence 0.50 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840887 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.18
The best characterized toxins are botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) and botulinum toxin type B (BTXB), both used therapeutically and commercially available.[12]

BTX: THE MOLECULAR MODE OF ACTION [FIGURE 1]

Gene_expression (type) of BTX associated with botox
18) Confidence 0.49 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840887 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.24
On the other hand, BTX injection into muscles has indirect effects on CNS activity.[1617]

BTX: EFFECTS ON PAIN

Gene_expression (injection) of BTX in muscles associated with pain
19) Confidence 0.49 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840887 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.81
Investigations following a single BTX injection into the sternomastoid muscle of mice demonstrated the development of temporary nerve sprouts that eventually were capable of exocytosis with subsequent upregulation of adjacent nicotinic receptors of the muscle fibre, forming a functional synapse.[10] The kinetics of this process, however, cannot explain the longer duration of BTX efficacy for instance in hyperhidrosis.


Gene_expression (injection) of BTX in muscle associated with skin appendage disease
20) Confidence 0.49 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Section Body Doc Link PMC2840887 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.07

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