INT23782

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Context Info
Confidence 0.50
First Reported 1986
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 58
Total Number 58
Disease Relevance 35.41
Pain Relevance 6.94

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytoskeleton (Spna1) molecular_function (Spna1) cytoplasm (Spna1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
brain 8
T cells 4
hippocampus 2
lungs 2
external 1
Spna1 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Inflammation 518 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 87 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 288 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 29 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 21 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 21 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
tetrodotoxin 9 96.92 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 14 96.32 Very High Very High Very High
Neurotransmitter 7 95.56 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 90 95.36 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Influenza Virus Infection 829 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Immunization 690 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Toxicity 60 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Shock 16 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 515 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 1577 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Alzheimer's Dementia 126 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 477 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Cognitive Disorder 707 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 6 99.60 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The possibility that the release of HA from the mouse hypothalamus is regulated by glucose concentration and that activation of neuronal Na+ channels is involved in the enhancement of the HA release by low glucose concentrations warrants further attention.
Positive_regulation (enhancement) of HA in neuronal
1) Confidence 0.50 Published 1986 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 2430060 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
We then fed 3-month-old 3xTg-AD mice vitamin B6-deficient food for 3 weeks to increase HA levels in the brain.
Positive_regulation (increase) of HA in brain associated with disease
2) Confidence 0.41 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0
We observed an increased level of HA in the hippocampus of 4-month-old 3xTg-AD homozygous mice compared with the level of age-matched control mice.
Positive_regulation (increased) of HA in hippocampus associated with hippocampus and disease
3) Confidence 0.41 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.10 Pain Relevance 0.12
Also, Table 2 shows the increased level of HA induced by vitamin B6-deficient feeding.
Positive_regulation (induced) of HA
4) Confidence 0.41 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0
The brain HA levels were significantly increased following the 3-week vitamin B6-deficient diet (Table 2).
Positive_regulation (increased) of HA in brain
5) Confidence 0.41 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 0.86 Pain Relevance 0
Also, Table 2 shows the increased level of HA induced by vitamin B6-deficient feeding.
Positive_regulation (increased) of HA
6) Confidence 0.41 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0
The HA and tele-methylhistamine released from whole blocks of the hypothalamus into the medium linearly increased during 2-h incubation in normal Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution in the absence of external depolarizing stimuli.
Positive_regulation (increased) of HA in external
7) Confidence 0.41 Published 1986 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 2430060 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
We thus needed to investigate whether the effect of anti-HA antibody or HA vaccine could be observed in the normal feeding of 3xTg-AD mice.
Positive_regulation (effect) of anti-HA associated with disease
8) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.28 Pain Relevance 0
Four-month-old prepathological 3xTg-AD mice exhibited higher levels of HA in the hippocampus than did age-matched nontransgenic mice, suggesting that HA accumulation may precede both A?
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of HA in hippocampus associated with hippocampus and disease
9) Confidence 0.32 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 0.98 Pain Relevance 0.05
We previously reported that homocysteic acid (HA) may be one of the pathological biomarkers in the brain with AD and that the increased levels of HA may induce the accumulation of intraneuronal amyloid-beta (A?)
Positive_regulation (increased) of HA in brain associated with alzheimer's dementia and disease
10) Confidence 0.32 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 0.88 Pain Relevance 0.04
The increased HA level was decreased by anti-HA antibody, which indicates that anti-HA antibody actually decreases the HA level.
Positive_regulation (increased) of HA
11) Confidence 0.30 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0
We thus needed to investigate whether the effect of anti-HA antibody or HA vaccine could be observed in the normal feeding of 3xTg-AD mice.
Positive_regulation (effect) of HA vaccine associated with disease
12) Confidence 0.30 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.29 Pain Relevance 0
Moreover, HA itself can induce neurodegeneration at a higher level with no amyloid [4], and the HA toxicity is induced by calcium influx [17] or by mitochondrial inhibition [5] or oxidative stress [4].



Positive_regulation (induced) of HA associated with stress, parkinson's disease, toxicity and alzheimer's dementia
13) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.21 Pain Relevance 0
Then why did the HA level increase in 3xTg-AD mice?
Positive_regulation (increase) of HA associated with disease
14) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.12 Pain Relevance 0
Our findings suggest that increased HA may partly contribute to the progression of AD in the mouse model.


Positive_regulation (increased) of HA associated with disease
15) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.13 Pain Relevance 0.04
We conclude that increased brain HA triggers memory impairment and that this condition deteriorates with amyloid and leads to subsequent neurodegeneration in mouse models of AD.



Positive_regulation (increased) of HA in brain associated with cognitive disorder, alzheimer's dementia and disease
16) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 0.96 Pain Relevance 0.03
This hypothesis is supported by our data suggesting that higher levels of HA are present in 3xTg-AD homozygous mice compared with non-Tg mice (Table 1).
Positive_regulation (levels) of HA associated with disease
17) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 0.98 Pain Relevance 0
B6-deficient food induces an increase in homocysteine, homocysteine sulfinic acid, and HA levels [10].
Positive_regulation (increase) of HA
18) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.05 Pain Relevance 0.06
These observations suggest that 3xTg-AD mice exhibit the activated gene of presenilin, which induced the calcium level [18]. 3xTg-AD mice exhibited the increased HA level (Table 1), and CBS is a calcium-dependent enzyme [15]. 3xTg-AD model mice exhibit the activated CBS activity, which induced the increased HA level.
Positive_regulation (increased) of HA associated with disease
19) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.33 Pain Relevance 0.04
We then fed 3-month-old 3xTg-AD mice with vitamin B6-deficient food for 3 weeks to increase the HA levels in the brain.
Positive_regulation (increase) of HA in brain associated with disease
20) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0.05

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