INT2421

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Context Info
Confidence 0.69
First Reported 1979
Last Reported 2007
Negated 8
Speculated 7
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 97
Total Number 104
Disease Relevance 13.38
Pain Relevance 55.32

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 25
cortex 11
PGE2 10
hippocampus 9
brain 8
Penk (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 440 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 26 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 20 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 18 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
amygdala 13 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cholecystokinin 13 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Substantia nigra 10 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antinociception 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dorsal horn 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Locus ceruleus 3 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 33 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Gallstones 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Catalepsy 1 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Shock 12 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoglycemia 5 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 2 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
Virus Diseases 2 99.50 Very High Very High Very High
Borna Disease 2 99.38 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 11 99.08 Very High Very High Very High
Infarction 5 98.98 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal accentuated the increase in dynorphin A and B levels in the accumbens and dynorphin A levels in the striatum, while inducing an increase in enkephalin levels in the accumbens and Met-enkephalin in the VTA.
Positive_regulation (inducing) of Positive_regulation (increase) of enkephalin in striatum associated with ventral tegmentum, dynorphin, narcan, enkephalin and withdrawal
1) Confidence 0.69 Published 1995 Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl.) Section Abstract Doc Link 7568625 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 2.05
A statistically significant increase in the analgetic activity lf leucin-enkephalin given at a dose of 100 micrograms was induced only by droperidol.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Positive_regulation (increase) of leucin-enkephalin associated with enkephalin
2) Confidence 0.69 Published 1979 Journal Farmakol Toksikol Section Abstract Doc Link 437076 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.62
Nicotine, which causes a rapid release of ENK from these cells, also induces an increase in ENK biosynthesis and ENK mRNA.
Positive_regulation (induces) of Positive_regulation (increase) of ENK associated with nicotine
3) Confidence 0.69 Published 1986 Journal Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris) Section Abstract Doc Link 3021043 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.26
The results suggest that blockade of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways appears to be responsible for increases of proENK and proDYN mRNA levels induced by KA via inhibiting the induction of Fra protein in rat hippocampus.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Positive_regulation (induced) of proENK in hippocampus associated with hippocampus
4) Confidence 0.67 Published 1998 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9519284 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.33
The increases of proENK and proDYN mRNA levels induced by KA were well correlated with the increases of Fra protein level.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Positive_regulation (induced) of proENK
5) Confidence 0.67 Published 1998 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9519284 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.39
Stress, however, resulted in the accumulation of proenkephalin A mRNA in control animals.
Positive_regulation (resulted) of Positive_regulation (accumulation) of proenkephalin A associated with stress
6) Confidence 0.67 Published 1990 Journal J. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2280210 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0.12
In contrast, the increase in met-enkephalin observed in the dorsal horn of operated animals was further enhanced in the thalidomide-treated animals.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Positive_regulation (increase) of enkephalin in dorsal horn associated with dorsal horn and enkephalin
7) Confidence 0.67 Published 2000 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 11068114 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0.86
Pretreatment of cells with cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor; 10 microM) did not affect the forskolin- or PMA-induced increase of proENK mRNA.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Positive_regulation (increase) of proENK mRNA
8) Confidence 0.67 Published 1996 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 8923515 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.40
These data indicate that both continuous and fluctuating patterns of dopamine receptor blockade result in activation of the preproenkephalin gene.
Positive_regulation (result) of Positive_regulation (activation) of preproenkephalin gene associated with dopamine receptor
9) Confidence 0.65 Published 1990 Journal Life Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 1969106 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
The elevations of both proENK and proDYN mRNA levels induced by KA were inhibited by pre-administration of CHX (15 mg/kg i.p.).
Positive_regulation (induced) of Positive_regulation (elevations) of proENK
10) Confidence 0.65 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9221929 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
The blocking of protein synthesis by cycloheximide (CHX) evokes a further increase of C2 ceramide-induced proENK mRNA and phospho-CREB level, while C2 ceramide-induced increases of AP-1 protein levels were reduced by CHX.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Positive_regulation (induced) of proENK mRNA
11) Confidence 0.62 Published 2001 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 11382404 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
VPA administration (i.p.) induces 30 min after treatment a significant and dose-dependent increase of Leu-enkephalin and Met-enkephalin in the striatum, hypothalamus, cortex and brainstem.
Positive_regulation (induces) of Positive_regulation (increase) of Met-enkephalin in cortex associated with medulla and enkephalin
12) Confidence 0.60 Published 1987 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 3109687 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.88
We conclude that the scant level of proenkephalin-derived peptides in the heart is not due to an intrinsic inability of the proenkephalin transcript to translate.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (due) of Positive_regulation (inability) of proenkephalin in heart
13) Confidence 0.50 Published 1992 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Abstract Doc Link 1438982 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.05
The acute treatment of rats with diazepam induces pronounced changes in brain enkephalin concentrations, as was estimated for methionine(met)-enkephalin and in some representative experiments for leucine(leu)-enkephalin, employing highly specific radioimmunoassays.
Positive_regulation (estimated) of Positive_regulation (experiments) of enkephalin in brain associated with enkephalin
14) Confidence 0.50 Published 1979 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 522892 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.54
The acute treatment of rats with diazepam induces pronounced changes in brain enkephalin concentrations, as was estimated for methionine(met)-enkephalin and in some representative experiments for leucine(leu)-enkephalin, employing highly specific radioimmunoassays.
Positive_regulation (estimated) of Positive_regulation (experiments) of enkephalin in brain associated with enkephalin
15) Confidence 0.50 Published 1979 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 522892 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.55
The similarities between the accumulation rate of immunoreactive YGGFMRF and of Met5-enkephalin induced by haloperidol suggest that haloperidol increases the biosynthesis of the specific messenger RNA for preproenkephalin, an opioid peptide precursor, which contains one copy of YGGFMRF and several copies of Met5-enkephalin.
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of Positive_regulation (induced) of Met5-enkephalin associated with enkephalin and opioid
16) Confidence 0.50 Published 1984 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 6368796 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.47
Three hours after the surgery, a comparison between rats with infarction and sham-operated rats revealed that the relative abundance of ppENK mRNA and the level of enkephalins were increased three- to four- and two- to three-fold, respectively, in the ventricles of rats with infarction.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Positive_regulation (abundance) of ppENK mRNA in ventricles associated with enkephalin and infarction
17) Confidence 0.50 Published 1992 Journal Biochem. Cell Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1449725 Disease Relevance 0.59 Pain Relevance 0.24
The decrease in proenkephalin mRNA in the NTS, CVLM, and RVLM may attenuate arterial baroreceptor reflex activity, while the increase in proenkephalin mRNA in the LC, AH and LH may increase sympathetic tone by inhibiting the activity of sympathodepressor preganglionic neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord.
Spec (may) Positive_regulation (increase) of Positive_regulation (increase) of proenkephalin mRNA in RVLM associated with rostral ventrolateral medulla, locus ceruleus, urological neuroanatomy and spinal cord
18) Confidence 0.49 Published 1994 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7968371 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.32
In contrast, and consistent with previous reports, levels of neurotensin and enkephalin mRNAs were upregulated on the lesioned side of the striatum.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of Positive_regulation (upregulated) of enkephalin in striatum associated with enkephalin
19) Confidence 0.49 Published 2002 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 12126877 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.77
Treatment of cells with dexamethasone resulted in a 10-fold decline in c-fos transcripts and a small increase in proenkephalin mRNA.
Positive_regulation (resulted) of Positive_regulation (increase) of proenkephalin associated with dexamethasone
20) Confidence 0.49 Published 1992 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1312200 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.10

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