INT24240

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1986
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 0
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 60
Total Number 61
Disease Relevance 9.92
Pain Relevance 20.18

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (Th) mitochondrion (Th) oxidoreductase activity (Th)
nucleus (Th) cytoplasm (Th)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 6
brain 5
ventral 5
striatum 2
olfactory bulb 2
Th (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
adenocard 199 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Ventral tegmentum 129 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Catecholamine 116 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 50 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
noradrenaline 8 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
midbrain 193 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Nerve growth factor 1 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
cocaine 52 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Substantia nigra 182 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 48 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Parkinson's Disease 727 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 233 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Death 86 99.40 Very High Very High Very High
Drug Dependence 27 98.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pheochromocytoma 1 97.36 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 7 96.24 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 32 95.88 Very High Very High Very High
Aging 77 95.80 Very High Very High Very High
Neurological Disease 5 95.20 Very High Very High Very High
Cv Unclassified Under Development 3 94.68 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Depolarizing stimuli increase tyrosine hydroxylase in the mouse locus coeruleus in culture.
Positive_regulation (increase) of tyrosine hydroxylase in locus coeruleus associated with locus ceruleus
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 1986 Journal Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 2874868 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.22
Exposure to the depolarizing agents veratridine or elevated K+ significantly increased the catalytic activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis.
Positive_regulation (increased) of TH associated with catecholamine
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 1986 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2874868 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.23
Exposure to the depolarizing agents veratridine or elevated K+ significantly increased the catalytic activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis.
Positive_regulation (increased) of tyrosine hydroxylase associated with catecholamine
3) Confidence 0.70 Published 1986 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2874868 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.23
Immunoblot and densitometric analysis indicated that depolarization did, indeed, increase TH immunoreactive protein.
Positive_regulation (increase) of TH
4) Confidence 0.70 Published 1986 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2874868 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.20
Levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, are known to be upregulated in specific brain regions by chronic administration of drugs of abuse.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of tyrosine hydroxylase in brain associated with catecholamine
5) Confidence 0.69 Published 1998 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9822754 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.47
To study the possibility that upregulation of TH occurs at the transcriptional level, we investigated the effect of chronic morphine or cocaine treatment on the activity of the TH gene promoter (9.0 kb), coupled to the LacZ reporter gene, in transgenic mice.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of TH associated with targeted disruption, cocaine and morphine
6) Confidence 0.69 Published 1998 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9822754 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.65
Chronic morphine administration increases TH levels in the locus coeruleus and ventral tegmental area, whereas chronic cocaine administration increases TH levels in the ventral tegmental area only.
Positive_regulation (increases) of TH in ventral associated with ventral tegmentum, locus ceruleus, cocaine and morphine
7) Confidence 0.69 Published 1998 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9822754 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.53
While such upregulation of TH has been related to behavioral effects of the drugs, the mechanism underlying these adaptations has remained controversial.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of TH
8) Confidence 0.69 Published 1998 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9822754 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.58
Levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, are known to be upregulated in specific brain regions by chronic administration of drugs of abuse.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of TH in brain associated with catecholamine
9) Confidence 0.69 Published 1998 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9822754 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.47
Chronic morphine administration increases TH levels in the locus coeruleus and ventral tegmental area, whereas chronic cocaine administration increases TH levels in the ventral tegmental area only.
Positive_regulation (increases) of TH in ventral associated with ventral tegmentum, locus ceruleus, cocaine and morphine
10) Confidence 0.69 Published 1998 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9822754 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0.51
Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was increased by high K(+), but not by the other drug treatments.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (increased) of Tyrosine hydroxylase
11) Confidence 0.65 Published 2008 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 18702728 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.83
Rather, TH fluorescence intensity increased in each neuron, suggesting that depolarization increased TH per neuron.
Positive_regulation (increased) of TH in neuron
12) Confidence 0.61 Published 1986 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2874868 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.21
Prenatal treatment increased TH activity in the noradrenergic system of the brain and decreased binding of radiolabelled prazosin, clonidine and dihydroalprenolol in some brain regions as well as stress reaction in mice.
Positive_regulation (increased) of TH in brain associated with stress and clonidine
13) Confidence 0.56 Published 1996 Journal Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova Section Abstract Doc Link 8963333 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.10
Within the microtubule-associated protein and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cell population adenosine triphosphate, noradrenaline, acetylcholine and L-glutamate elicited positive elevations of Ca2+ in 74, 66, 58 and 67% of the population; cells could be further subdivided into three major pharmacologically distinct populations based on the combinations of agonist they responded to.
Positive_regulation (elevations) of tyrosine hydroxylase associated with glutamate, adenocard, agonist and noradrenaline
14) Confidence 0.46 Published 2007 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 17419751 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.81
Within the microtubule-associated protein and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cell population adenosine triphosphate, noradrenaline, acetylcholine and L-glutamate elicited positive elevations of Ca2+ in 74, 66, 58 and 67% of the population; cells could be further subdivided into three major pharmacologically distinct populations based on the combinations of agonist they responded to.
Positive_regulation (elevations) of TH associated with glutamate, adenocard, agonist and noradrenaline
15) Confidence 0.46 Published 2007 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 17419751 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.81
Spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal produced time-related significant alterations in gene transcription: (i) decreased (20%) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area and increased (50%) in substantia nigra; (ii) increased proenkephalin (PENK) gene expression more than 100% in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and piriform cortex; (iii) increased (20-40%) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Positive_regulation (increased) of tyrosine hydroxylase in caudate-putamen associated with nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmentum, substantia nigra, cannabinoid and withdrawal
16) Confidence 0.46 Published 2003 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 12641731 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.84
It has been demonstrated that TH activation requires TH-Ser-40 phosphorylation; thus, we also measured Ser(P)-40 levels in mouse striatum.
Positive_regulation (activation) of TH in striatum
17) Confidence 0.45 Published 2010 Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry Section Body Doc Link PMC2878529 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.03
In KO animals the loss of PTEN immunoreactivity in the ventral mesencephalon was associated with increased TH and phospho-AKT staining (Figure 1B).
Positive_regulation (increased) of TH in ventral
18) Confidence 0.45 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2736587 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.19
Elevated pTH in VTA (a key dopamine releasing region) in neglectful mice did not reach significance, but c-Fos did.
Positive_regulation (Elevated) of pTH associated with ventral tegmentum and dopamine
19) Confidence 0.44 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2276864 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.49
The effects of veratridine were prevented by tetrodotoxin, suggesting that transmembrane Na+ influx was necessary for the rise in TH.
Positive_regulation (necessary) of TH associated with tetrodotoxin
20) Confidence 0.44 Published 1986 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2874868 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.23

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