INT24525

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Context Info
Confidence 0.60
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2010
Negated 3
Speculated 1
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 19
Total Number 21
Disease Relevance 10.17
Pain Relevance 9.57

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Gal) Golgi apparatus (Gal) cytoplasm (Gal)
Anatomy Link Frequency
hypothalamus 1
spinal 1
neuronal 1
sciatic nerve 1
neurons 1
Gal (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Sciatic nerve 21 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
spinal dorsal horn 2 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 214 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 8 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
antinociception 3 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
depression 4 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
nociceptor 11 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
withdrawal 36 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Locus ceruleus 16 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
allodynia 75 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cystitis 3 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 221 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Nervous System Injury 110 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 4 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropathic Pain 238 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Anxiety Disorder 3 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
Drug Dependence 4 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 9 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 99 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
Death 80 98.54 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Galanin, a 29-amino-acid peptide expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn interneurones, is regulated by nerve injury and peripheral inflammation.
Regulation (regulated) of Galanin in dorsal root ganglia associated with nervous system injury, inflammation and spinal dorsal horn
1) Confidence 0.60 Published 2002 Journal Trends Pharmacol. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12368071 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0.36
Dox administration had no effect on the levels of galanin protein in WT animals.
Neg (no) Regulation (effect) of galanin protein
2) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2978139 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.31
For example, the neuropeptide-rich hypothalamus region showed decreased (Met)enkephalin in PC2 deficient mice, but NPY, VIP, galanin, and CRF were not altered.
Neg (not) Regulation (altered) of galanin in hypothalamus associated with neuropeptide and enkephalin
3) Confidence 0.60 Published 2003 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 12860111 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.74
In the present study, we examined the effects of CP-induced cystitis on the levels of mRNAs encoding galanin, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), substance P, and enkephalins in the hypothalamic and limbic nuclei using in situ hybridization histochemistry in mouse.
Spec (examined) Regulation (effects) of galanin associated with cystitis, enkephalin and substance p
4) Confidence 0.60 Published 2007 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Abstract Doc Link 17335920 Disease Relevance 0.48 Pain Relevance 0.63
Differential effects of intrathecally injected galanin on antinociception induced by beta-endorphin and morphine administered intracerebroventricularly in mice.
Regulation (effects) of galanin associated with antinociception, nociceptor and morphine
5) Confidence 0.60 Published 1994 Journal Neuropeptides Section Title Doc Link 7520552 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.12
Biochemical and molecular cloning efforts have demonstrated that the multiplicity of actions of galanin is matched by complexity in the distribution and regulation of galanin and its receptors.
Regulation (regulation) of galanin
6) Confidence 0.54 Published 1999 Journal Results Probl Cell Differ Section Abstract Doc Link 10453468 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.14
Galanin: a novel therapeutic target for depression, anxiety disorders and drug addiction?
Regulation (target) of Galanin associated with drug dependence, addiction, depression and anxiety disorder
7) Confidence 0.45 Published 2006 Journal CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Section Title Doc Link 16611095 Disease Relevance 1.03 Pain Relevance 0.78
At the spinal level galanin and NPY are regulated in DRG neurons by nerve injury and in dorsal horn neurons by inflammation.
Regulation (regulated) of galanin in neurons associated with nervous system injury, inflammation and dorsal horn neuron
8) Confidence 0.45 Published 1999 Journal Horm. Metab. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 10422730 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0.30
It is therefore desirable to reversibly overexpress galanin in a temporally controllable fashion allowing one to study whether galanin can reverse established allodynia, thus validating galanin as a target for drug discovery.
Regulation (target) of galanin associated with allodynia
9) Confidence 0.44 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2978139 Disease Relevance 0.99 Pain Relevance 0.43
Outlier values for Gal and Scn11a were also found in two AKR mice (one operated, one sham) and in one operated CBA mouse.
Regulation (values) of Gal
10) Confidence 0.40 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2649910 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0.09
This study demonstrates that galanin binding in the LC is upregulated by chronic-intermittent morphine administration or by precipitated withdrawal, but not by acute morphine treatment, suggesting that increased activity in the LC may be able to regulate galanin binding sites.
Regulation (regulate) of galanin associated with locus ceruleus, withdrawal and morphine
11) Confidence 0.36 Published 2000 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 10882839 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 1.06
On the basis of these results one of the up-regulated genes (Gal, which codes for the neuropeptide galanin) and one of the down-regulated genes (Scn11a) were chosen as marker genes for "step 2" TaqMan analysis.
Regulation (regulated) of Gal associated with neuropeptide
12) Confidence 0.35 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2649910 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.16
Furthermore, the finding that galanin can significantly attenuate established allodynia strongly supports galanin and its receptors as targets for drug development.


Regulation (targets) of galanin associated with allodynia
13) Confidence 0.26 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2978139 Disease Relevance 0.81 Pain Relevance 0.31
Galanin immunoreactivity also peaked at proestrus.
Regulation (immunoreactivity) of Galanin
14) Confidence 0.24 Published 2005 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 15936815 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0.64
The ability to selectively modulate the many different actions of galanin, through a clearer understanding of receptor structure-function relationships and neuronal distribution, promises to provide important insights into the molecular and cellular basis of galanin action in normal physiology, and may provide lead compounds with therapeutic application in the prevention and treatment of a range of disorders.
Regulation (modulate) of galanin in neuronal
15) Confidence 0.24 Published 1999 Journal Results Probl Cell Differ Section Abstract Doc Link 10453468 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
The participation of galanin in pain processing at the spinal level.
Regulation (participation) of galanin in spinal associated with pain
16) Confidence 0.23 Published 2002 Journal Trends Pharmacol. Sci. Section Title Doc Link 12368071 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.52
The effects of galanin, somatostatin, and clonidine on [Ca2+]i were abolished in beta-cells treated with pertussis toxin.
Regulation (effects) of galanin associated with bordatella infection, somatostatin and clonidine
17) Confidence 0.21 Published 1989 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 2463254 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.45
Although galanin peptide mRNA levels do not change during withdrawal, it is not known whether galanin receptor levels are regulated following opiate withdrawal.
Neg (not) Regulation (change) of galanin associated with opiate and withdrawal
18) Confidence 0.19 Published 2000 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 10882839 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 1.00
To ensure that compensatory alterations in GalR2 or galanin did not exist in GalR1 null mutant mice (GalR1?
Regulation (alterations) of galanin
19) Confidence 0.16 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC3001489 Disease Relevance 1.12 Pain Relevance 0.15
As well, any modifications in seizure-induced cell death we observe in GalR1 null mutant mice will likely not be due to adaptive changes in GalR2 or galanin.


Regulation (changes) of galanin associated with convulsion and death
20) Confidence 0.16 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC3001489 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0.12

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