INT24711

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Context Info
Confidence 0.35
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 22
Total Number 24
Disease Relevance 14.75
Pain Relevance 3.59

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytoskeleton (Spna1) molecular_function (Spna1) cytoplasm (Spna1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
hippocampus 2
tail 1
brain 1
urine 1
intestine 1
Spna1 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
IPN 34 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 128 97.92 Very High Very High Very High
nMDA receptor 8 92.32 High High
agonist 19 91.48 High High
antagonist 10 87.24 High High
Pain 57 78.16 Quite High
midbrain 1 76.16 Quite High
rheumatoid arthritis 67 67.28 Quite High
long-term potentiation 16 64.16 Quite High
Arthritis 64 58.44 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Toxicity 31 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 647 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
Influenza Virus Infection 434 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 108 99.22 Very High Very High Very High
Neurodegenerative Disease 96 98.20 Very High Very High Very High
Cognitive Disorder 318 95.60 Very High Very High Very High
Immunization 316 94.00 High High
Dyskinesias 2 93.48 High High
Infection 116 92.72 High High
Shock 3 91.92 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The increased HA level was decreased by anti-HA antibody, which indicates that anti-HA antibody actually decreases the HA level.
Negative_regulation (decreases) of HA
1) Confidence 0.35 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.07 Pain Relevance 0
Anti-HA antibody significantly decreased the HA level in 3xTg-AD mice (Table 2) and HA vaccine decreased the urinary HA level of 3xTg-AD mice at 15 months.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of HA associated with disease
2) Confidence 0.35 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.07 Pain Relevance 0.04
From Tables 2 and 3, it is clearly observed that anti-HA antibody and HA vaccine destroy HA in brain or urine, which indicates a decreased level of HA in brain and urine.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of HA in urine
3) Confidence 0.26 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0.06
The increased HA level was decreased by anti-HA antibody, which indicates that anti-HA antibody actually decreases the HA level.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of HA
4) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0
Our findings on anti-HA antibody treatment in transgenic mice demonstrate that the toxicity of HA is decreased and neurodegeneration is inhibited following which hippocampus volume increased, suggesting that neurogenesis may occur (Table 4).
Negative_regulation (decreased) of HA in hippocampus associated with targeted disruption, toxicity, hippocampus and neurodegenerative disease
5) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.51 Pain Relevance 0.30
Anti-HA antibody significantly decreased the HA level in 3xTg-AD mice (Table 2) and HA vaccine decreased the urinary HA level of 3xTg-AD mice at 15 months.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of HA associated with disease
6) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.07 Pain Relevance 0.04
In conclusion, (i) HA accelerates pathological changes in AD; and (ii) HA toxicity decreases with anti-HA antibody, which induces strong neurogenesis in the hippocampus, resulting in marked recovery of memory performance.
Negative_regulation (decreases) of HA in hippocampus associated with cognitive disorder, toxicity, hippocampus, neurodegenerative disease and disease
7) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 1.24 Pain Relevance 0.47
The HA turnover, measured either by the accumulation of t-MH after pargyline injection or by the HA depletion after the treatment with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine, a specific inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, was enhanced by the exposure to tail pinch, like the enhancement produced by the exposure to foot shock.
Negative_regulation (depletion) of HA in tail associated with shock
8) Confidence 0.24 Published 1989 Journal Jpn. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2470944 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.04
Besides, orally delivered I-SPH-IPN could retain in rat intestine for more than 8 h while P-SPH-IPN was quickly eliminated, suggesting better retentive properties of I-SPH-IPN.
Negative_regulation (eliminated) of P-SPH-IPN in intestine associated with ipn
9) Confidence 0.15 Published 2010 Journal Biomaterials Section Abstract Doc Link 20116843 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 1.41
The integral SPH-IPN (I-SPH-IPN) and powdered SPH-IPN (P-SPH-IPN) exhibited potent and equivalent in vitro enzymatic inhibition capacities, which were attributed to both enzyme incorporation and Ca(2+) deprivation.
Negative_regulation (powdered) of P-SPH-IPN associated with ipn
10) Confidence 0.12 Published 2010 Journal Biomaterials Section Abstract Doc Link 20116843 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.91
Coating microneedles with inactivated influenza virus caused loss of HA activity of the vaccine whereas addition of trehalose to the coating buffer significantly improved the maintenance of HA activity.
Negative_regulation (loss) of HA associated with influenza virus infection
11) Confidence 0.12 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2745577 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0
In the present study, we investigated microneedle vaccination via the skin and the effects of loss of HA activity of the influenza vaccine on its immunogenicity.
Negative_regulation (loss) of HA in skin associated with influenza virus infection
12) Confidence 0.12 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2745577 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0
Accordingly, Aichi escape mutants with a substitution at position 193 (S193I and S193R) formed significantly smaller plaques than the Aichi parent virus (data not shown), which might have resulted from the reduced HA function of these mutants.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of HA in plaques
13) Confidence 0.10 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2652660 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
These results suggest that drying of the inactivated influenza virus has a significant damaging effect on vaccine integrity and that the addition of trehalose can largely stabilize the antigen HA activity during coating onto microneedles.


Negative_regulation (stabilize) of HA associated with influenza virus infection
14) Confidence 0.09 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2745577 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0
We next investigated the relationship between retention of HA activity of influenza vaccine and its immunogenicity after microneedle vaccination using both solid state formulations administered using MN or liquid state formulations intramuscularly.
Spec (investigated) Negative_regulation (retention) of HA associated with influenza virus infection
15) Confidence 0.09 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2745577 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0
As seen in this photomicrograph, many VTM neurons were immunoreactive for histamine, but a significant number of non-HA neurons were also found within the VTM.
Negative_regulation (number) of HA in neurons
16) Confidence 0.09 Published 2010 Journal Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience Section Body Doc Link PMC2972729 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
From Tables 2 and 3, it is clearly observed that anti-HA antibody and HA vaccine destroy HA in brain or urine, which indicates a decreased level of HA in brain and urine.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of HA in brain
17) Confidence 0.09 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808336 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0.06
S1P is produced by the activation (i.e., phosphorylation) of sphingosine (Sph) via its 2 isoforms of sphingosine kinase-1/2 (SphK-1/2) resulting in the production of the prosurvival S1P molecule with decreasing levels of the proapoptotic Sph molecule [35].
Negative_regulation (decreasing) of Sph
18) Confidence 0.07 Published 2009 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2842969 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.12
On the other hand, it has been suggested that the amino acid residues not only at position 193 but also at position 190 of H1 HA play a key role in interaction with the glycan in the extension region [27],[29],[31],[32].
Negative_regulation (position) of HA
19) Confidence 0.06 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2652660 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
These results indicated that MAb S139/1 had a novel potential to neutralize the infectivity of multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses by inhibiting HA binding to the sialic acid receptors.


Negative_regulation (inhibiting) of HA associated with influenza virus infection
20) Confidence 0.06 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2652660 Disease Relevance 0.68 Pain Relevance 0

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