INT24798

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Context Info
Confidence 0.55
First Reported 1982
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 4
Reported most in Body
Documents 52
Total Number 57
Disease Relevance 27.25
Pain Relevance 15.17

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cell proliferation (Glul) mitochondrion (Glul) lyase activity (Glul)
Golgi apparatus (Glul) intracellular (Glul) protein complex (Glul)
Anatomy Link Frequency
brain 4
neuronal 4
neurons 4
spinal cords 2
striatum 2
Glul (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Glutamate 672 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 6 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 216 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 145 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
intrathecal 6 98.86 Very High Very High Very High
Gabapentin 3 98.82 Very High Very High Very High
tolerance 40 98.80 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 14 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
addiction 43 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 84 97.52 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Hypoxia 1155 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 773 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Dystonia 16 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Catalepsy 6 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
Death 279 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 365 99.22 Very High Very High Very High
Drug Induced Neurotoxicity 78 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
Vibrio Infection 11 98.30 Very High Very High Very High
Reperfusion Injury 36 98.08 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Concurrent infusion of dexamethasone attenuated morphine tolerance and the associated glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate synthetase downregulation.
Negative_regulation (downregulation) of glutamate synthetase
1) Confidence 0.55 Published 2007 Journal Anesth. Analg. Section Body Doc Link 17312234 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
RESULTS: Glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate synthetase concentrations were downregulated in the morphine-tolerant rat spinal cords.
Negative_regulation (downregulated) of glutamate synthetase in spinal cords
2) Confidence 0.55 Published 2007 Journal Anesth. Analg. Section Body Doc Link 17312234 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
CONCLUSION: Intrathecal dexamethasone attenuates long-term morphine infusion-induced glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate synthetase downregulation and antinociceptive tolerance.


Negative_regulation (downregulation) of glutamate synthetase
3) Confidence 0.55 Published 2007 Journal Anesth. Analg. Section Body Doc Link 17312234 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
This study has demonstrated that the central sensitization induced in functionally identified nociceptive neurons in trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (the medullary dorsal horn) by application of an inflammatory irritant to the rat's tooth pulp can be significantly attenuated by continuous intrathecal superfusion of methionine sulfoximine (MSO; 0.1 mM), an inhibitor of the astroglial enzyme glutamine synthetase that is involved in the glutamate-glutamine shuttle.
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of glutamine synthetase in neurons associated with nociception, glutamate, inflammation, central sensitization, dorsal horn and intrathecal
4) Confidence 0.51 Published 2007 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 17715343 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.58
The mRNA of the urea cycle enzymes and glutamine synthetase was uniformly reduced by allyl alcohol, whereas that of most urea cycle enzymes was above the controls after the non-lethal, but not after the sub-lethal, dose of acetaminophen.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of glutamine synthetase
5) Confidence 0.49 Published 1997 Journal J. Hepatol. Section Body Doc Link 9252090 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
The mRNA of glutamine synthetase was significantly more reduced by acetaminophen than by allyl alcohol.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of glutamine synthetase
6) Confidence 0.49 Published 1997 Journal J. Hepatol. Section Body Doc Link 9252090 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
There was little alteration in enzyme activities, except for decreased glutamine synthetase and adenylate deaminase activity in muscle of glutamine-infused rats and higher tissue carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II.
Neg (except) Negative_regulation (decreased) of glutamine synthetase in muscle
7) Confidence 0.45 Published 1988 Journal Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. Section Abstract Doc Link 2474281 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
Indeed, diabetes-induced GS tyrosine nitration was positively correlated with a significant inhibition (40%) of GS activity (Figure 4), and treatment with CBD restored this activity in the diabetic animals.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of GS associated with diabetes mellitus
8) Confidence 0.44 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2925907 Disease Relevance 1.16 Pain Relevance 0.04
As shown in Figure 3, diabetes caused significant tyrosine nitration (2.3-fold) of GS that was significantly reduced by treatment with CBD.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of GS associated with diabetes mellitus
9) Confidence 0.44 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2925907 Disease Relevance 1.10 Pain Relevance 0.06
Diabetes-impaired GS activity should lead to the accumulation of glutamate and the formation of peroxynitrite, which in turn can sustain tyrosine nitration and the inhibition of GS activity.
Negative_regulation (impaired) of GS associated with glutamate and diabetes mellitus
10) Confidence 0.44 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2925907 Disease Relevance 1.05 Pain Relevance 0.18
Our results showed a 2.3 fold increase in GS tyrosine nitration that was associated with a significant reduction (40%) in GS activity in diabetic retinas compared with controls.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of GS in retinas associated with diabetes mellitus
11) Confidence 0.44 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2925907 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.18
Moreover, ultra-low-dose naloxone plus morphine administration inhibited the downregulation of L-glutamate transporters (GTs) and the L-glutamate-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS), and, moreover, inhibited microglial activation and suppressed cytokine expression in PTX-treated rat spinal cords.
Negative_regulation (downregulation) of L-glutamate-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase in spinal cords associated with glutamate, narcan, cytokine and morphine
12) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 18216775 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 1.35
MorĂ³n et al. [2] found a downregulation of glutamine synthetase in hippocampal postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction after morphine administration.
Negative_regulation (downregulation) of glutamine synthetase associated with morphine
13) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal Anal Bioanal Chem Section Body Doc Link PMC2990007 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.56
Glutamate decarboxylase (67000 mol. wt) messenger RNA levels were increased in the Purkinje cells and decreased in the deep cerebellar nuclei of dystonic rats compared to control littermates, suggesting opposite changes in GABAergic transmission in Purkinje cells and in their target neurons in the deep cerebellar nuclei.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Glutamate decarboxylase in neurons associated with glutamate, gabaergic and dystonia
14) Confidence 0.39 Published 1998 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 9466432 Disease Relevance 0.79 Pain Relevance 0.46
We observed that, in cultured astrocytes, Gabapentin induced a weak increase in the biosynthesis of NO, a mild decrease in GS activity and cell viability, and minor induction of a stress condition.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of GS in astrocytes associated with stress and gabapentin
15) Confidence 0.38 Published 2001 Journal Neuroreport Section Abstract Doc Link 11409743 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.29
Tyrosine nitration may inhibit glutamine synthetase (GS), causing glutamate accumulation and leading to further neuronal cell death.
Spec (may) Negative_regulation (inhibit) of glutamine synthetase in neuronal associated with glutamate and death
16) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2925907 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.09
Tyrosine nitration may inhibit glutamine synthetase (GS), causing glutamate accumulation and leading to further neuronal cell death.
Spec (may) Negative_regulation (inhibit) of GS in neuronal associated with glutamate and death
17) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2925907 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.09
The data suggests that miR-29a effects on intestinal membrane permeability may be due to its regulation of GLUL.
Negative_regulation (regulation) of GLUL
18) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal Gut Section Body Doc Link 19951903 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Diabetes-impaired GS activity should lead to the accumulation of glutamate and the formation of peroxynitrite, which in turn can sustain tyrosine nitration and the inhibition of GS activity.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of GS associated with glutamate and diabetes mellitus
19) Confidence 0.32 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2925907 Disease Relevance 1.32 Pain Relevance 0.18
Although alterations in glutamate transporter activity during diabetes remain controversial, impairment of GS activity has been previously reported [38-40].
Negative_regulation (impairment) of GS associated with glutamate and diabetes mellitus
20) Confidence 0.32 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2925907 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0.23

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