INT24799

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Context Info
Confidence 0.45
First Reported 1985
Last Reported 2010
Negated 3
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 22
Total Number 23
Disease Relevance 8.30
Pain Relevance 8.00

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cell proliferation (Glul) mitochondrion (Glul) lyase activity (Glul)
Golgi apparatus (Glul) intracellular (Glul) protein complex (Glul)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 3
astrocytes 2
dorsal 1
retinas 1
spinal cord 1
Glul (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Glutamate 171 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
dopamine receptor 15 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 13 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 7 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Gabapentin 6 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 3 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
anticonvulsant 2 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 9 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 5 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 280 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Congenital Anomalies 2 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Dystonia 16 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Aids-related Complex 4 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoxia 189 97.26 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 12 92.48 High High
Death 81 91.28 High High
Syndrome 2 90.84 High High
Gliosis 1 90.56 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
We studied in vitro the effects of anticonvulsant drugs Gabapentin and Topiramate on the production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO), the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS), and cell viability in primary cultures of rat cortical astrocytes which are intimately involved in the normal functioning of neurons.
Regulation (effects) of glutamine synthetase in astrocytes associated with anticonvulsant and gabapentin
1) Confidence 0.45 Published 2001 Journal Neuroreport Section Abstract Doc Link 11409743 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.30
We studied in vitro the effects of anticonvulsant drugs Gabapentin and Topiramate on the production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO), the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS), and cell viability in primary cultures of rat cortical astrocytes which are intimately involved in the normal functioning of neurons.
Regulation (effects) of GS in astrocytes associated with anticonvulsant and gabapentin
2) Confidence 0.45 Published 2001 Journal Neuroreport Section Abstract Doc Link 11409743 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.30
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a key enzyme in the regulation of glutamate neurotransmission in the central nervous system.
Regulation (regulation) of Glutamine synthetase in central nervous system associated with glutamate and central nervous system
3) Confidence 0.44 Published 2003 Journal Yonsei Med. J. Section Abstract Doc Link 12619185 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.35
Although in humans dystonia is often the result of pathology in the basal ganglia, previous studies have revealed electrophysiological abnormalities and alterations in glutamate decarboxylase, the synthetic enzyme for GABA, in the cerebellum of dystonic rats.
Regulation (alterations) of glutamate decarboxylase in cerebellum associated with gaba, glutamate, congenital anomalies and dystonia
4) Confidence 0.41 Published 1998 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 9466432 Disease Relevance 0.79 Pain Relevance 0.26
Therefore, we investigated GS nitration and its impact on GS activity in diabetic rat retinas.
Spec (investigated) Regulation (impact) of GS in retinas associated with diabetes mellitus
5) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2925907 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0.20
Modulation of GS activity in brain therefore important and its impairment or saturation may have pathological consequences 53.
Regulation (Modulation) of GS in brain
6) Confidence 0.29 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Medical Sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2880843 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.16
The sustained decreased activity of GS in reperfusion group compared to anoxia may be a cumulative of other factors, including a down regulation of GS production and an increased clearance of this enzyme apart from modulation of GS activity by NO.
Regulation (modulation) of GS associated with hypoxia
7) Confidence 0.29 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Medical Sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2880843 Disease Relevance 0.48 Pain Relevance 0.30
The efficacy of the GABA-T-inhibitors was measured biochemically, and the influence on the activity of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) was also determined.
Regulation (influence) of glutamate decarboxylase associated with glutamate, gaba and generalized anxiety disorder
8) Confidence 0.29 Published 1985 Journal Biochem. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 3933514 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.86
Additionally, we found publication considering changes in the level of glutamine synthetase in the spinal cord of morphine-tolerant mice [5] examined by Western blotting.
Regulation (changes) of glutamine synthetase in spinal cord associated with morphine and spinal cord
9) Confidence 0.26 Published 2010 Journal Anal Bioanal Chem Section Body Doc Link PMC2990007 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.68
Differential regulation of glutamate decarboxylase and preproenkephalin mRNA levels in the rat striatum.
Regulation (regulation) of glutamate decarboxylase in striatum associated with glutamate and enkephalin
10) Confidence 0.25 Published 1994 Journal Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 8004444 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.49
The data suggests that miR-29a effects on intestinal membrane permeability may be due to its regulation of GLUL.
Regulation (regulation) of GLUL
11) Confidence 0.23 Published 2010 Journal Gut Section Body Doc Link 19951903 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Since GS is primarily responsible for glutamate-glutamine metabolism, the increase in total immunostaining for GFAP-and GS- staining suggests a functional adjustment to cope with some of the capsaicin-induced effects.
Regulation (responsible) of GS associated with glutamate and qutenza
12) Confidence 0.23 Published 2004 Journal Neuroreport Section Abstract Doc Link 15076747 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0.48
There was little alteration in enzyme activities, except for decreased glutamine synthetase and adenylate deaminase activity in muscle of glutamine-infused rats and higher tissue carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II.
Neg (little) Regulation (alteration) of glutamine synthetase in muscle
13) Confidence 0.21 Published 1988 Journal Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. Section Abstract Doc Link 2474281 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
Our results lend further support to previous reports showing that diabetes can alter glial function and impair GS activity [38,42,43].
Regulation (alter) of GS associated with diabetes mellitus
14) Confidence 0.20 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2925907 Disease Relevance 0.73 Pain Relevance 0.17
Recent studies have demonstrated that GS is a susceptible target for tyrosine nitration [21].
Regulation (target) of GS
15) Confidence 0.20 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2925907 Disease Relevance 1.00 Pain Relevance 0.03
We next evaluated the effects of tyrosine nitration on GS activity.
Regulation (effects) of GS
16) Confidence 0.20 Published 2010 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2925907 Disease Relevance 1.12 Pain Relevance 0.04
Evidence for the coexistence of glutamate decarboxylase and Met-enkephalin immunoreactivities in axon terminals of rat ventral pallidum.
Regulation (immunoreactivities) of glutamate decarboxylase in ventral associated with glutamate and enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.19 Published 1985 Journal Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 3884089 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.29
In contrast, levels of glutamate decarboxylase (67000 mol. wt) messenger RNA in the pallidum, and of enkephalin messenger RNA in the striatum, were unaffected in dystonic rats.
Neg (unaffected) Regulation (unaffected) of glutamate decarboxylase in striatum associated with glutamate, dystonia and enkephalin
18) Confidence 0.18 Published 1998 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 9466432 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.47
The decreased activity of GS in reperfusion group compared to anoxia may be a cumulative of other factors, including a down regulation of GS production and an increased clearance of this enzyme apart from modulation of GS by NO.
Regulation (modulation) of GS associated with hypoxia
19) Confidence 0.13 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Medical Sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2880843 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0.27
Effects of neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine injections on glutamate decarboxylase, preproenkephalin and dopamine D2 receptor mRNAs in the adult rat striatum.
Regulation (Effects) of glutamate decarboxylase in striatum associated with dopamine, glutamate and enkephalin
20) Confidence 0.09 Published 1993 Journal Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 7902185 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.46

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